Cognitive (STM & LTM)

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  • Created by: gabbyb98
  • Created on: 14-03-15 21:17
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  • Cognitive (STM & LTM)
    • LTM
      • Duration
        • unlimited
        • Bahrick et al. (1975) - recall yearbook photos. After 48 years they were around 70% accurate
          • Evaluation:  high ecological validity. Hard to control variables.
      • Capacity
        • unlimited
      • Encoding
        • Baddeley (1966)In the STM study, participants were asked immediately after presentation, to recall, in serial order, a list of five words taken from a pool of words
          • In the LTM study, each list of words was extended to ten, and recall was tested after an interval of twenty minutes
          • Conclusions; STM relies heavily on acoustic codingLTM primarily makes use of semantic coding
          • Evaluation: lacks ecological valdity. Evidence from other studies shows that, in certain circumstances, both STM and LTM can use diffrent methods of encoding.
        • STM
          • Capacity
            • Jacobs (1887) - P's read a list of letter OR digits and asked to recall them immediately. Length of list was increased until recall was incorrect.
              • Conclusion STM has a capacity of 7 ± 2 items of info.
                • Miller (1956) - digit span of 7 +/- 2 in STM
              • Evaluation:Artifical, lacks ecological valdity
            • Miller (1956) - digit span of 7 +/- 2 in STM
            • Postcodes are based on chunking
          • Duration
            • Peterson and Peterson (1959) - gave participants consonant syllables (non-meaningful) followed by a 3-digit number. Participants had to count back from number in 3s or 4s for  seconds  before recalling the syllable. After 3 seconds: 90%. After 18 seconds: 2%.
              • Marsh et al. (1997) - duration may only be 2 seconds if participants don't expect to recall info
              • Evaluation: lacks ecological valdity ( lab experiment) only one type of stimuls was used
    • Encoding
      • Baddeley (1966)In the STM study, participants were asked immediately after presentation, to recall, in serial order, a list of five words taken from a pool of words
        • In the LTM study, each list of words was extended to ten, and recall was tested after an interval of twenty minutes
        • Conclusions; STM relies heavily on acoustic codingLTM primarily makes use of semantic coding
        • Evaluation: lacks ecological valdity. Evidence from other studies shows that, in certain circumstances, both STM and LTM can use diffrent methods of encoding.
      • STM
        • Capacity
          • Jacobs (1887) - P's read a list of letter OR digits and asked to recall them immediately. Length of list was increased until recall was incorrect.
            • Conclusion STM has a capacity of 7 ± 2 items of info.
              • Evaluation:Artifical, lacks ecological valdity
            • Postcodes are based on chunking
          • Duration
            • Peterson and Peterson (1959) - gave participants consonant syllables (non-meaningful) followed by a 3-digit number. Participants had to count back from number in 3s or 4s for  seconds  before recalling the syllable. After 3 seconds: 90%. After 18 seconds: 2%.
              • Marsh et al. (1997) - duration may only be 2 seconds if participants don't expect to recall info
              • Evaluation: lacks ecological valdity ( lab experiment) only one type of stimuls was used

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