Cognitive Psychology Studies

View mindmap
  • Cognitive Psychology Studies
    • Simon
      • Capacity of STM
        • P's presented with a list of one, two or eight work chunks. They were then asked to recall as many of these as possible.
          • The larger the chunks, the less that could be remembered. On average the participant could hold;
            • 4 of the two word chunks
            • 7 of the one word chunks
            • 3 of the eight word chunks
          • -Experiment artificial, low ecological validity
          • +Well controlled
          • +Cause and effect can be established
    • Peterson and Peterson
      • Duration of STM
        • P's shown a trigram and asked to recall it after 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. They were given an interference task of counting backwards in 3's between initial presentation and recall. This was to prevent rehersal
          • As the time between presentation and recall increased, successful recall decreased After;
            • 3 seconds there was 80% recall
            • 6 seconds there was 40% recall
            • 18 seconds there was 10% recall
          • -Low ecological validity
          • +Highly controlled
          • +Cause and effect can be established
    • Conrad
      • Encoding in STM
        • P's showed lists of 6 letters for 0.75 seconds and asked to recall as many as possible.Recall was too fast for participants to keep up so the information has to be held in STM.
          • They made more mistakes mixing up letters that were acoustically similar than those that were visually similar
            • Therefore Conrad concluded that most encoding into STM is acoustic
          • -Lacks ecological validity
          • +High control
          • +Cause and effect cannot be established
    • Bahrick et Al
      • Duration of LTM
        • 392 ex-students of different ages from a high school who had graduated anywhere from 2 weeks to 57 years ago were used
          • 2 groups; On had to match names to faces (recognition) and the other had to name people in photos (recall)
            • Recognition group;
              • 90% accurate, 14 years after graduation
              • 80% accurate, 25 years after graduation
              • 75% accurate, 34 years after graduation
              • 60% accurate, 7 years after graduation
            • Recall group;
              • 60% accurate, 7 years after graduation
              • >20% accurate, 47 years after graduation
            • People can remember certain types of information for almost a lifetime. The accuracy of very long term memory is better when measured by recognition than recall tests
          • -Lacks some important controls
          • -Study focused of recognition rather than recall and is only testing one form of LTM
          • +The findings support other studies that have demonstrated peoples LTM's
          • +High ecological validity
    • Baddeley
      • Encoding in LTM
        • 72 p's were presented with one of four lists of five words and heard it repeated 4 times. They then had a 20 minute distracter task to prevent rehearsal. Participants were given a list of 10 words and participants had to identify the 5 correct words from the list
          • The words were;
            • Acoustically Similar; Man, Mad, Cap, Cat, Can
            • Acoustically Dissimilar; Pit, Few, Cow, Pen, Bar
            • Semantically Dissimilar; Great, Large, Big, Huge, Wide
            • Semantically Dissimilar; Good, Huge, Hot, Safe, Thin
          • More errors were made with acoustically similar words. Therefore most encoding in LTM is semantic
          • +Strong evidence for semantic encoding in LTM
          • +Good control
          • -Lacks external validity


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Core studies resources »