Multi-Store Model of Memory

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  • Created by: Kerry
  • Created on: 11-03-14 20:20
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  • Cognitive Psychology: Memory - The MSM
    • Atkinson and Shriffon argued there are three memory stores:
      • Short-term store
        • Some information is the Sensory store is paid ATTENTION to and processed further by the short-term store
          • According to the theory information from the environment is initially received by the sensory stores - there is sensory store for each sense
        • Maintenance rehearsal is needed to keep information in the short term store - without this information would decay (forgotten)
      • Sensory Memory
        • According to the theory information from the environment is initially received by the sensory stores - there is sensory store for each sense
      • Long-term store
        • Elaborative rehearsal is needed for information to be processed from the short term store to the long term store
          • Short-term store
            • Some information is the Sensory store is paid ATTENTION to and processed further by the short-term store
              • Maintenance rehearsal is needed to keep information in the short term store - without this information would decay (forgotten)
          • Information can be brought back to the short term store through retrieval
      • Assumptions of the MSM
        • SM, STM and LTM are all separate, single stores
        • There is differences in capacity, duration and encoding of each of the stores
          • STM - 7 +/-2 items, short duration and acoustically/ visually encoded
          • LTM - potentially unlimited, potentially forever, semantically encoded
        • Each of the stores undergoes different processes
          • STM - have to pay attention in order for it to be stored in STM
          • Maintenance rehearsal is needed for information not to decay from STM
          • Elaborative rehearsal is needed for information to be transferred to LTM
      • Supports MSM assumptions
        • Brain scans
          • Findings: LTM tasks activate the Hippocampus STM tasks activate the preforental cortex
            • Tihs supports the prediction that the MSM are seperate stores
            • This is strong supporting evidence as it is scientific and factual
        • Glantzer & Cunitz
          • Rehearsal aids recall as words at the beginning of the list are recalled correctly at a higher percentage
            • Strong support as was a lab experiment so high control of extraneous variables, used standardised procedures so results are replicable and more reilable
          • Primacy effect - the words at beginning of list have chance to be rehearsed so will transfer to LTM
          • Recency effect - words at the end of the list are still accessible in the STM
            • Found that when rehearsal was prevented the recency affect disappears
              • Rehearsal is needed to keep information in the STM
              • STM and LTM are separate stores
      • Contradicts MSM assumptions
        • Spiers et al
          • Studied sufferers of amnesia and found patients could remember some parts of their life but not others
            • Suggests the LTM has substores which isnt predicted by the MSM, these are: procedural, semantic and episodic
              • Therefore the LTM isnt a single store as the MSM assumes, the MSM is reductionist and too simplistic
        • Untitled
        • Shallice & Warrington
          • Studied a man called KF who had brain damage, he could only recall visually presented information and not acoustic information from his STM
            • Suggests that STM is not a single store because if some of it was broken, all of it would be broken, the MSM is reductionist and too simplistic
            • Research isnt strong contradicting evidence as it is a case study - this makes it unreplicable due to ethical issues so therefore less reliable
              • Also research is into a broken brain so cannot be generalised to the general population

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