Cognitive psychology- memory

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  • Created by: Robyn
  • Created on: 17-05-13 17:15
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  • Cognitive psychology- memory
    • The Multi-store Model
      • Sensory memory
        • short duration store
        • holds unprocessed impressions
        • sensory info
      • Short-term memory
        • a temporary store
        • holds small amounts
        • brief duration
          • less than 30 secs
          • Peterson and Peterson
            • nonsense trigrams
              • good recall- 3secs
              • bad recall- 18secs
        • encoding= mainly acoustic
          • Baddeley
            • acoustic similar= 15% recall
            • acoustic confusion= acoustic encoding
      • Long-term memory
        • permanent
        • capacity= limitless
        • duration= unlimited
          • Bahrick et al
            • yearbook photo recall
              • 15 years later
                • 90%
              • 48 years later
                • 80% names
                • 70% faces
        • encoding= semantic
          • Baddeley
            • semantic=55% recall
              • after 20 mins
      • Evaluate
        • influential :)
        • case studies :)
        • over simplistic stores :(
        • structure not process :(
        • Cohen :(
          • capacity= nature of info
    • Working Memory Model
      • Central Executive
        • oversees and coordinates
        • determines what info is seen to
        • Baddeley
          • 2 tasks compete for central executive resources
          • limited capacity
      • Phonological loop
        • store auditory info
        • slave system
        • phonological store
          • stores words heard
        • Articulatory process
          • sub-vocal repetition of info in loop
        • Baddeley et al
          • recall short words better
      • Visual-spatial sketchpad
        • stores visual and spatial info
        • visual cache
          • stores visual material about colour and form
        • Inner scribe
          • store info about spatial relations
      • Episodic buffer
        • limited capacity store
        • integrated info from other stores
      • Evaluation
        • emphasis on rehearsal :)
        • PET scan :)
        • STM= temporary store and active process :)
        • vague central executive knowledge :(
        • only STM :(
        • experimentslack realism :(
    • Eye witness testimony
      • Evidence providedby witnesses to crime
      • research furthers understanding of memory
      • suggests how court cases should be conducted
      • Schemas
        • ready made expectations
        • fill gaps in knowledge
        • implications for reliability of EWT
      • affected by (mis)leading info
        • increases likelihood of schemas being used
          • get desired answers
      • Research
        • Loftus and Palmer
          • film of car accident
            • leading Qs
              • change verb= change speed answer
            • glass Q a week later
              • verb affects answer
        • Loftus
          • leading Q about barn
            • film of car accident
              • leading Qs
                • change verb= change speed answer
              • glass Q a week later
                • verb affects answer
      • Evaluation
        • EWT= more accurate in reality :)
        • pps do not expect to be misled= inaccurate :)
        • misleading info affects unimportant aspects :)
    • Factors affecting accuracy of recall
      • anxiety
        • may heighten senses
        • may impair memories
        • Loftus et al
          • weapon involved= focus on weapon not person
        • Evaluation
          • inverted-U hypothesis
            • Evidence for and against
          • Deffenbacher
            • meta-analysis
              • optimum performance until a certain amount of anxiety
      • Age
        • cognitive abilities decrease with time
        • young kids= vulnerable to misleading
        • Loftus et al
          • old= false identifications
            • no recall of specifics
        • Evaluation
          • best recall of photos with own age
          • unclear why this happens
          • difficult to control confounding variables
    • Cognitive interview
      • Police interview procedure
      • Stages
        • change of order
          • recount  from end to beginning
        • Change of perspective
        • mental reinstatement
          • environmental and emotional state of context
        • Report everything
      • Research
        • Geiselman et al
          • compared favourably
        • Fisher et al
          • assessed performance of interviewer
          • Compared interview techniques
      • Evaluation
        • several techniques + different versions
        • time consuming
        • recommended for over 8 yrs
        • change of perspective= misleads

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