Cognitive model for smoking addiction

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  • Created by: Grace
  • Created on: 03-05-13 19:48
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  • Cognitive explanations for Smoking
      • Addicts have different expectancies about their positive and negative effects of behaviour compared to non addicts. A behaviour escalates into an addiction due to the costs and benefits they think it brings.
        • Immediate Gratification = think of short term benefits. Delayed Gratification = think of long term consequences.
        • Support = Mermelstein = The expectancty of positive mood states has also been shown to be the reason teens begin to smoke.
    • MAINTENANCE = Automatic Processing
      • Brandon et al - as an addiction develops the activity is influenced by unconscious  expectancies. Therefore  unconsciously  the benefits outweigh the consequences so they carry on.
      • Support = Tate et al - told smokers they would experience no negative effects during a period of abstinence. This led to fewer reported somatic effects and psychologicalsuch as mood disturbance than the control group.
    • RELAPSE = Costs and benefits analysis.
      • Those who want immediate gratification have another to stop withdrawal symptoms. Delayed gratification = think of long term and continue to quit - think of better health etc.
      • Those individuals who perceive  smoking to have lots of benefits and quitting to have relatively few are the most likely to relapse in a quit attempt..
    • Supports healthier treatments - supporting people in them understanding the costs of smoking.
      • This focuses more on why you cant stop rather then those who do.
        • Deterministic - Suggests those who want immediate gratification will never stop.
          • Need to think about mixing models together. Moolchan et al = use of nicotine patches increase cessation rates and reduce relapse rates but only when accompanied by CBT. This shows that cognitive factors are important as you need to change the way you think in order to quit properly.


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