The Cognitive Approach

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  • Cognitive
    • Levels of Processing
      • A01
        • Semantic
          • Meaning- Deep
        • Phonetic
          • Sound- Intermediate
        • Structural
          • Looks- Shallow
        • Rehearsal
          • Maintenance
          • Elaborative
      • A02
        • Morris et al (football)- supporting
        • Craik + Tulving (words)- supporting
        • Diseth + Martinsen (shallow= A*)- challenge
        • Reber et al (emotions, unusual events)- challenge
        • TOAST
          • Things cant explain
          • Opposing
          • Application
          • Supporting
          • Testable
    • Reconstructive memory
      • A01
        • Imaginative Reconstruction
          • Fill gaps
            • 'Active Process'
        • Confabulation
          • Process of filling the gaps
        • Not blank tape
          • Don't remember all + in order
        • Schema
          • Fill gaps
            • 'Active Process'
          • = Expectations/ stereotypes
        • Fragments of Memory
          • Expectations
            • Past experience
          • Stereotype
        • Bartlett (1932)
          • War of the Ghosts
            • Ptp reconstructed story based on expectations
              • Errors=
                • Changed hunting seals to fishing
                  • Cultural norms, we don't hunt seals
                • Story Shortened
                • Replace 'canoe' with 'boat'
      • A02
        • Carli (1999)
          • Rape vs Abrupt
        • Allport + Postman (1947)
          • Razor
        • Brewer + Tryens (1981)
          • Office objects
        • Wyn + Logie (1998)
          • 1st week university
        • Strength
          • Explains why memory innacurate
        • Weaknesses
          • Only focus on retreival
            • Not explain how info taken in
          • Unusual things remembered more
            • Theory not explain this
          • Happy remembered more
            • Theory not explain this
    • Research Methods
      • Sampling Methods
        • Volunteer
        • Oppotunity
        • Systematic
        • Random
      • Design
        • Independent
        • Matched Pairs
        • Repeated
      • Experiment
        • Lab
        • Field
        • Natural
      • Hypothesis
        • Null (no difference)
        • One-Tailed (..will be..)
        • Two-Tailed (will be a difference)
    • Craik and Tulving
      • A01
        • Aim
        • Procedure
        • Findings
        • Conclusion
      • A02
        • DREEAMS
    • Cognitive Assumptions
      • Scientific
        • Hypothesis
          • Experiments
        • Study of brain damaged people
      • Brain= Computer
        • Input
          • Process
            • Output
              • Screen/printer= reaction, behaviour
            • CPU= Brain working
          • Keyboard/mouse= Sensors
      • Memory
        • Encoding
        • Storage
        • Retreival
    • Practical
      • A01
        • Aim
        • Procedure
        • Findings
        • Conclusion
      • A02
        • DREEAMS
  • Unusual things remembered more

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