Cognitive Processing- fundamentals.

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  • Cognitive Processes- Fundamentals.
    • Implacable experimenter
      • Situation in experimental research in which experimental behaviour is uninfluenced by participant behaviour.
    • Paradigm specificity
      • Occurs when findings within given experiments or paradigms are not obtained even when apparently very similar tasks are used.
    • Ecological Validity
      • Applicability of findings of laboratory studies to everyday settings.
    • Bottom-up Processing
      • Starting with the stimulus and moving through the functions until receiving a response.       Stimulus, data and perceptually driven.
      • Reductionism
        • Approach to perception. BU breaks down process into basic elements.
    • Top-down Processing
      • Process directly affected by past experiences and expectations. Conceptually, memory and expectation driven.
    • Serial Processing
      • Only one process occurs at one time. The current process is completed before the next one starts.
    • Parallel Processing
      • More than one process occurs at a time. Nearly all processing is done parallel especially when skilled or highly practiced in that area.
    • 5 senses
      • Visual, Auditory, Olfaction, Taste and Touch.
    • Gibson
      • Founder of processing debate.
      • visual perception.
      • suggested solely understood by environmental stimulus.
    • Sensory Information
      • Experience this about the world around us such as light levels from environment.
      • Signals brought to retina.
      • Transduction transforms signals into electrical impulses. They travel along visual pathways to the brain where they enter visual cortex and form experiences.
    • Types of data
      • Qualitative
        • Self report, cases studies and natural observations.
      • Quantative
        • Experiments, Neuroscience, computer stimulations.
    • Approaches
      • Experimental Psychology
        • Changing rule to try change behaviour. Manipulation of variable. Normally conducted on healthy adults in lab.
      • Cognitive Neuroscience
        • Basis of neural behaviour and parts of brain responsible. Use methods such as fMRI and EEG. Atypical participants, expensive and requires specialist training.
    • Experiments
      • Ecological validity. Variables and measure behaviour. Healthy in lab. Reaction time and accuracy. 'Stroop Test'
    • Computational Modelling
      • Input/Output. Does not collect data on humans. Stimulates human behaviour.
      • Building Artificial intelligence and psychology. Based analogy between mind and brain. Used computer program model to stimulate human behaviour based on input and output approach.
    • Prosopagnosia
      • Known as face blindness. neuro disorder. able to perceive not recognise. BU functional, TD impaired.


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