Cognitive Neuroscience

  • Created by: Kelseyb
  • Created on: 14-01-18 15:50
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  • Cognitive Neuroscience
    • History
      • Localisation view  (phrenology, Broca + Wernicke)+ aggregate field theory
      • Neuron Doctrine
      • Empiricism + Behaviourism (Watson + Skinner)
    • Methods
      • Cognitive Psychology,(mental ops, info from environment(, Cognitive Neuroscience(metal ops + specific brain areas/neural interactions etc)
      • Posner-representations/reaction times + stimulus onset asynchrony
      • Sternberg-memory task, stroop task
      • Experimental techniques-Animal research. (single cell recordings, genetic manipulations). Neurology (cognitive dysfunction, trauma,,stroke,tumors, neuruodegeneative disease, infectious disorders, epilepsy),  Functional neurosurgery (DBS), Brain lesions (single vs double dissociations, Group vs individual studies), Non -invasively (FMRI, PET), virtual lesions (TMS),
    • Learning + Memory
      • 1)encoding 2)storage 3)retrieval
      • Sensory memory, STM (KF, left temporoparietal junction), Working memory (central executive), LTM (declarative, Non-declarative,  perceptual learning)
        • encoding + retrieval- frontal cortex. Left- semantic retrieval + episodic encoding. encoding of words. right-episodic retrieval. faces encoded. (hemispheric specialisation).
      • H.M , hippocampus lesion  (CA1) (anterograde episodic amnesia)
        • FMRI- items LTM stored where encoded,
      • Memory consolidation,(fast=MTL + HIPPO, slow= cortical assocation areas), MTL- relecant - LT episodic not semantic
        • Synaptic transmission, receptor types, Glutamate as neurotransmitter, long term potentiation, Morris Water maze
      • serial reaction time (test implicit + procedural learning in MTL amnesia), MTL damage still perceptual prime,
        • Associative agnosia + apperceptive agnosia. semantic knowledge stored different places
    • Attention + Consciousness
      • ERP (dichotic listening task, N1 amp larger for attended stimuli. -90ms after stimulus onset. early selection-corticol level.
        • Valid-invalid cueing paradigm,
      • Overt + Covert. voluntary (top-down, endogenous), involuntary (bottom-up, exogenous). Inhibition of return.
      • Spatial, feature, object based attention
      • Visual search, pop-out search, conjunction search,
      • biased competition model of attention, V1, V2, VP, V4, TEO. V5/MT- movement, V4-colour + shape.
      • Source areas, Site areas.
        • premotor theory of attention
          • unilateral spatial neglect + extinction. representational model. attentional bias model.spatial neglect. object neglect.
    • emotion
      • S.M,- fear. amygdala
      • Ekman + Friesan universal emotions
        • Circuit model of emotions. Papez circuit, limbic system.
          • Kluver-Bucy syndrome (psychic blindness)
        • implicit emotional learning/conditioning
          • James-Lange theory + Cannan Bard theory- centre periphernery debate
            • implicit- amygdala, explicit- hippocampus.
      • anxious apprension _ anxious arousal
    • Cognitive control
      • goal oritented behaviour.
        • Working memory
          • Dynamic filtering
            • selective filtering hypothesis
        • Content based approaches. Process based approaches
          • inhibition of action
            • stop-signal task
              • schema control units
                • monitoring system
        • preservate
          • Wisconsin sorting task
            • stroop task
              • verb generation task
    • Social cognition
      • self-referential processing
        • resting state network
        • self-refrential bias for positive traits
      • simulation theory, mirror neurons, empathy
      • utilization behaviour
      • framing effect
      • orbitofrontal cortex


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