Gender kohlberg's

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  • Created by: Hazel99
  • Created on: 22-09-16 09:24
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  • Cognitive explanations of gender development
    • Kohlberg's 1966 theory
      • Gender identity - 2 -3 1/2 years old
      • Gender Stability -3 1/2 - 4 1/2 year old
      • Gender constancy - 4 1/2 - 7 years old.
      • Highly motivated to behave in a  way that is expected of them as a boy or girl
      • Evidence and evalution
        • studies have confirmed that these occur in the order that he suggested
        • Children pay closer attention to same sex models once they reached the stage of gender constancy
          • Slaby and Frey 1975
            • Sample between 2 and 5. each child was asked a series of questions to examine which stage of Kohlberg;s model they have reached
              • Children with high score indicating high or low gender constancy were selected and compared
            • Shwon a silent film  - male and female models carried out gender sterotyped acticvity
            • Show on a split screen
              • Equipment was used to track their eye movements and direction of gaze. To measure the amount of time each child spent looking at both films.
              • Visual preference technique
    • Gender schema theory - Martina and Halverson 1981
      • Disagree with the second of Kohlberg's claim - that gender role develop after children realise that gender is constant.
      • Children 2 to 3 develop a basic gender schema
        • Boys and girls
        • Shapes their behaviour
          • Approiate behaviours
      • Campbell et al. 2004 - evidence and evaluation
        • Studied the development of gender schemas in toddler using a longitudinal design
          • 56 children studied at 27 months and again at 39 months
            • Took place at the child's home and seated with their parent shown an album of pictures
              • After this the child were givien a selection  of the toys that they have been shown in the oictures and filmed for 30  minutes as they played with them
                • Parents were prevented from intervening and influencing play direction.
        • Asked to point to the girl or boy (gender labelling task)
        • 53% of the 27  onths correctly completed the gender labelling task but by 39 months 94% correctly identify themselevesas boy or girl
        • Sterotypeing of toys was 21% at 27 months and 51% at 39 months
        • Stereotyping activities were 0% and 17%
        • Rapid development in schemas between the ages of 2 and 3 years

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