Cognitive Approach

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  • Created on: 11-02-20 11:51
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  • Cognitive Approach
    • 1. Computer Analogy
      • Cognitive psychologists often compare the human mind to a computer
      • Multistore Model of Memory by Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968
        • Info is input to the brain through senses and moves to STM store and then to LTM store. It is output when required
    • 2. Internal Mental Processes
      • The approach sees us as info processors
      • Essential processors work together to allow us to make sense of and respond to the world around us
        • attention, memory, perception, language (all work together)
    • 3. Schemas
      • schemas are mental structures that represent an aspect of the world such as an object or event
      • Schemas help us to make sense of the world, by providing short cuts to identifying things that we come across. Without schemas, we would struggle to navigate our way through the world.
      • Schemas are generated through past experience and interactions with people and the world around us. Schemas can also alter our memory, causing us to misremember events that do not fit into our existing schema.
    • CBT principles
      • Dysfunctional thought diary
        • clients are asked to keep a diary of thoughts and feelings associated with any negative events. They have to pay attention to any automatic negative thoughts.
          • For each negative thought, they have to rate how much they believe this (from 0% - 100%)
            • They then give a rational response to this thought and rate their belief in that. Finally they rate their belief in the automatic thought
      • Cognitive reconstructing
        • The client is taught how to challenge dysfunctional automatic thoughts outside therapy by asking themselves two questions
          • Where is the evidence for X? AND What is the worst that can happen if X was true?
            • By answering these questions, the negative thought can be replaced by more positive constructive ones
      • Pleasant activity scheduling
        • Involves the client to plan for each day. It could be something that gives a sense of accomplishment or something that will involve a break from a normal routine
          • It is thought that engaging in pleasant activities will induce more positive emotions and that focusing on new things will detract from negative thinking patterns
    • Relationship Formation
      • Halo Effect
        • cognitive bias in which an observer's overall impression of a person, company etc influences the observer's feelings and thoughts about that entity's character or properties
        • The halo effect is the idea that people who are judged to be attractive are typically perceived in a positive light
          • Dion et al (1972) found that attractive people are consistently rated as successful, kind and sociable when compared to unattractive people
      • Internal mental processes
        • Our cognitive process of perception is important in forming relationships.
          • The way we view others will influence whether we want to enter into a new relationship
          • When you first meet someone, your perceptions will influence if you want to see them again
        • MEMORY
          • If we have positive memories of past relationships, this may be a driving force in forming new relationships.
    • CBT
      • Negative Cognitive Triad
        • Beck proposed that depressed people in particular develop a pattern of negative thinking called NCT
          • This involves a negative view of self, the world and the future
            • These 3 negative schemas influences the way that a person sees themselves and the world. This negative triad also makes it difficult for depressed people to recall happy memories, instead of focusing on unpleasant or unhappy one


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