Cognitive Psychology

  • Created by: EliseJ
  • Created on: 28-05-18 09:46
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  • Cognitive
    • Defining
      • Cognitive psychologistbelieve mind like information processor
      • major influence on human behaviour + emotion = how mind processes info
      • compare brain to computer
      • Info comes into computer through keyboard - info comes through senses
        • computer then runs programs to process info - humans process info via CNS + brain
          • Computer output = printing - human output = behaviour
    • models/theories of memory
      • memory is single term reflecting number of different abilities
        • 3 processes = encoding, storage, retrieval
      • Multi-Store model = Atkinson & Shriffin
        • DIAGRAM
      • Working memory model = Baddeley & Hitch
        • DIAGRAM
      • Episodic + Semantic memory as explanation for LTM
        • Tulving - make distinction between semantic and episodic memory
          • knowledge that we hold in semantic +  episodic memories focuses on knowing that something is the case
            • both cases declaring what we know - both fall under type of LTM = declarative memory
          • Episodic memory = memory of autobiographical events - dependent on context of events which info initially learned - is susceptible to transformation
          • Semantic memory = learn new facts - may once have had personal context but now stand alone as simple knowledge
        • gradual transition from episodic to semantic memory can take place - episodic memory reduces its sensitivity + association to particular events
          • info can be generalised as semantic memory
      • Reconstructive memory - Bartlett
        • remembering the past requires an attempt to reconstruct events experienced previously
        • schemas = templates based on past experiences that we use to fill the gaps within a story w/expectations
    • Individual differences and developmental psychology
      • Indiv differences in how we encode/ process & output info
        • brain damage can have same effect on different indivs - HM show hippocampusplays important role in memory
          • however, will also be effect differences of damage between indivs as each case/person is unique
      • reconstructive memory suggests we remember using schemas + that everyones schemas are indiv - depending on experiences
      • episodic memories are by nature individual - about individual episode in lives
        • Tulving suggests there is a difference between episodic & semantic memories


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