Cognition on Gender- Kolberg's Theory

  • Created by: belllily
  • Created on: 03-04-18 14:53
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  • Cognition on Gender - Kohlberg's Theory
    • A cognitive developmental approach to gender; thinking is pivotal in development.
      • Kolberg also applied this view to moral development.
      • Draws on Piaget's ideas that maturation of the brain explains development.
    • A staged theory of development. Each stage due to maturation of brain.
      • Stage 1: Gender Labelling
        • Age 2-3
        • Children have ability to label gender of selves and others.
          • Based only on superficial stereotypes.
        • Piaget: Thinking is pre-operational. Has face logic but lacks internal logic and consistency.
      • Stage 3: Gender Constancy
        • Age 6
        • Gender remains constant over time and situation.
          • Begin to learn "gender appropriate behaviours".
            • Seek role models to imitate and internalise sex-role behaviours.
          • Based on Piaget's 'state of conservation'.
        • Research Critisim of Constancy
          • Martin and Little: children under 4 have no signs of stability or constancy but strong stereotyping.
            • 4 year olds are supposedly not in state of conservation but only need to acquire knowledge of gender to form schema and label
              • Contradicts Kolberg and may support Schema Theory.
        • Gender Differences
          • Found that boys have constancy before girls
          • Found that boys resist other gender-type behaviours over girls.
            • May be explained as male role models may be seen as more powerful- they are more likely to provoke identification and boys not identifying is more likely to receive punishment.
              • Found that boys have constancy before girls
              • This is a Social Learning Theory explanation.
                • Therefore, Kolberg's theory may be incomplete and require elements of SLT to make complete explanation.
      • Stage 2: Gender Stability
        • Age 4
        • Aware that gender is constant over time but not situation.
          • Based on superficial and behavioural stereotypes.
            • If behaviour changes, gender changes, but swayed by superficial stereotypes.
      • Research Support of 3 Stages
        • Thomson: gender labelling 76% correct at age 2, 90% at age 3
          • Increase in ability with age in line with Kolberg's Labelling stage.
            • Within one stage so predicted due to brain maturation.
        • Slaby and Frey: asked questions of gender past and future
          • "Will you be a mummy or a daddy?"
          • Only recognised gender stable over time at age 3/4
            • In line with Kolberg's Stability stage


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