Coding, Capacity, Duration of Memory

  • Created by: ZoeRanger
  • Created on: 03-12-18 14:34
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  • Coding, Capacity and Duration of Memory
    • Weaknesses
      • Jacobs - conducted a long time ago
      • Miller - may have overestimated the capacity of STM
      • Peterson and Peterson - artificial stimulus
      • Baddeley - didn't use meaningful material
    • Jacobs (1887) Capacity of STM
      • Findings
        • Average = 9.3 number and 7.3 letters
      • Procedure
        • Digit span
    • Peterson and Peterson (1959) Duration of STM
      • Procedure
        • 24 students were given a consonant syllable to remember and a 3-digit number to count backwards for 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds
      • Findings
        • 80% of the syllables correctly with a 3 second interval
        • 18 Seconds = 3%
        • STM = 18 to 30 seconds without rehersal
    • Miller (1956) Capacity of STM
      • Findings
        • Span of STM = 7 items (+/- 2)
          • Can be improved by chunking
      • Procedure
        • Made observations of everyday practice
    • Bahrick et al. (1975) Duration LTM
      • Procedure
        • 392 Americans aged 17 to 74
          • 1. Recognition test
          • 2. Free recall test
      • Findings
        • 48 years after graduation = 70% in photo recognition. free recall = less accurate.
    • Baddeley (1966) Coding in STM and LTM
      • Findings
        • Immediate recall was worse with acoustically similar words. STM = acoustic.
        • Recall after 20 minutes = worse with semantically similar words. LTM = semantic.
      • Procedure
        • Acoustically similar words or dissimilar. Semantically similar words or dissimilar.
    • Strength
      • Bahrick et al. - high external validity

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