Psychology- Coding, capacity and duration

  • Created by: Daisymac
  • Created on: 19-01-19 14:06
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  • Coding, capacity and duration
    • Coding
      • The process of converting information from one store to another
      • Baddeley 1966 gave different lists of words to four groups of words for participants to remember
        • Group 1-Acoustically similar           Group 2- Acoustically different         Group 3- Semantically similar .         Group 4- Semantically different
        • Participants were shown the original words and asked to recall them in the correct order.
        • When they were asked to recall immediately after hearing it they tended to do worse of acoustically similar words
        • When asked to recall 20 mins after, they did worse on semantically similar words as info is coded semantically in LTM
        • -ve = Artificial stimuli as it was not an everyday task
        • + Ease of replication
    • Capacity
      • The amount of information that can be held in a memory store
      • Jacobs 1887 and Miller 1956
        • Measured digit span by giving a list of digits to participants and asking them to repeat the list back to them in the correct order. For example, the researcher made read a list of 4 digits to the participants, if the participants recalled this list correctly the research would then read a list of 5 digits.
        • This would be repeated until the participant was unable to repeat the list of digits correctly. Miller extended this procedure by using letters and words as well as digits
        • The results showed that the mean span for digits was 9.3 and for letters it was 7.3. Miller noted that people were just as able to recall 5 words as they were 5 letters – he suggested this was because of chunking.
        • -ve= Lack validity as it was conducted a long time ago and so lacked control , such as participants becoming distracted while they were being tested -- Confounding variables
        • -ve artificial task
    • Duration
      • The length of time information can be held in memory
      • Bahrick 1975
        • Studied 392 participants from Ohio who were aged 17-74. High school yearbooks were obtained from the participants or from the schools.
        • Recall was tested in various ways including: a photo-recognition test consisting of 50 photos, some from the participants’ high school year book and a free recall test where participants recalled all the names of their graduating class.
        • Participants who were tested within 15 years of graduation were about 90% accurate with task one and 60% accurate with task two. After 48 years there was 70% accuracy with task one and 30% accuracy with task two.
        • Higher external validity as meaningful memories were studied
        • Confounding vriables, eg, may have looked at yearbooks recently

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