Geography - Coasts CASE STUDIES

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: selene98
  • Created on: 01-05-15 19:46
View mindmap
  • Coasts
    • Coastal erosion - The Holderness coastline
      • Facts
        • 61km long
        • Stretches from Flamborough Head to Spurn Head
        • Fastest eroding coastline in Europe
      • Causes
        • Geology: till, prone to erosion (corrasion) and slumping when wet
        • Narrow beaches that protect less the cliffs
          • Beaches are narrow due to Flamborough Head stopping sediment from north replenishing beaches along Holderness
          • Coastal defences (human cause of erosion)
        • Powerful waves
          • Long fetch
          • The coast faces dominant wind and wave direction (north-east)
      • Impacts
        • Social impacts
          • 30 villages lost since Roman times
          • Low property prices due to high risk of erosion
        • Economic impacts
          • Decreased tourism of 30% between 1998 and 2006
          • Caravan parks at risk of erosion, e.g. Ulrome Car Park loses 10 pitches a year
          • £2mil spent at Mappleton to protect the coast
          • 80km2 of farmland lost every year
        • Environmental impacts
          • SSSIs are threatened
            • The Lagoon near Easington, is at risk of erosion leading to the loss of 1% of the UK's population of little terns
    • Coastal flooding - Tsunami South Asia, 2004
      • Facts
        • Tsunami devastated Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India
        • Caused by a 9.0 earthquake in the Indian Ocean
        • Tsunami travelled for 800km across the Bay of Bengal
        • Tsunami reached 2km inland
        • Epicenter of earthquake off western coast of Indonesia
      • Impacts
        • Social
          • 230.000 killed/missing
          • 1.7mil made homeless
          • Polluted drinking water by saltwater or sewage
          • 400.000 lost their jobs, only Sri Lanka
        • Economic
          • Cost of damage $5bil-$18bil
          • Livelihood of fishermen affected due to destroyed equipment (boats, nets, etc)
          • Salinisation of land reduced soil fertility and crop production decreased
          • Tourism affected; 25% of Thailand's hotels were closed
          • Destroyed coral reefs increased the impacts
        • Environmental
          • 8mil litres of oil into the sea, producing pollution and soil contamination
          • Damaged Mangrove forests
          • Natural balance of system destroyed due to salt content in soil
    • Coastal management
      • Hard Engineering - Holderness
        • Successfulness
          • 11,4km of coastline protected
          • Bridlington protected by 4,7km of sea wall + timber groynes
          • 2 rock groynes + 500m of revetment at Mappleton to protect the village and B1242
          • Withernsea protected by groynes and sea wall
          • Spurn Head protected by groynes and rip rap
          • Gabions protect Hornsea Caravan Park
          • Easington Gas Terminal protected by revetment
        • Problems
          • Groynes increase erosion of the cliffs down-drift, e.g. increased erosion south Mappleton
          • Reduction of eroded sediment leads to increased risk of flooding along Lincolnshire Coast
          • Formation of bays between areas, putting pressure on headlands and increasing cost of maintanance
      • Soft Engineering - Blackwater Estuary
        • Facts
          • Nourished beaches at Mersea Island
          • Marsh stabilization at Ray Creek by planting vegetation
          • Coastal realignment at Bradwell-on-sea
          • Sea wall breached in 1995 and 40 hectares of farmland flooded at Orplands due to coast. realign.
          • Lowered sea wall in 1991 at Northey Island + 0.8 hectares breached flooded
        • Scheme more successful than hard engineering
          • Marshland created at Orplands will defend the coast for longer as it's self repairing
          • More marshlands provide more habitats for wildlife
          • Lost grazing land

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Case studies resources »