Coasts Mind-map

A easy to follow and colourful mind-map, that shows and tells you all you need to know about coast. The topics include: Longshore drift, mass movement, weathering, dunes, waves, salt marshes and spits :)

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  • Coasts
    • Weathering
      • Mechanical
        • Also known as physical weathering
      • Chemical
        • Invol;ves the action of chemicals (acid rain), dissolving rocks over time.
      • Biological
        • Involves the action of plants and animals, burrowing roots into cracks and rock faces.
    • Mass Movement
      • This is the movement of large areas of rock as they downslope under the force of Gravity.
        • Slde: a type of mass movement where large areas of coastal rock and soil, fall downwards from the cliff.
          • Slump: a small distance of movement, that occurs when the movement is accelerated by it being saturated.
    • Longshore Drift
      • 1. Waves approach the beach at a slight angle
      • 2. As the waves break, the SWASH carries the material up the becak at the same angle as the wave approached..
      • 3. The BACKWASH and any material carried by it fall back down the beach, under the force of gravity.
      • 4. The material is moved in a 'zig-zag' pattern.
    • Spits
      • 1. The prevailing winds, causes the sand and shingle to move along the beach.
      • 2. The sand and shingle move beyond the beach and they are deposited in the calmer water behind the headland.
      • 3. The Spit extends further into the sea. Marsh and Mudflats begin to form, as mud is deposited behind the spit.
      • 4. Soon there is so much mud there, that salt-loving plants begin to grow.
      • 5. The Saltmarsh eco-system is formed.
    • Salt Marshes
      • Areas of low-lying coastal wetland that is periodically flooded.
      • Dynamic landscape
      • Mud and Slit accumulate here.
      • Salt-tolerant plants colonise, these are called Pioneer Plants.
    • Dunes
      • The marron grasses have long roots that hold the dunes together .. allowing more vegetation to develope and a natural HEATHLAND appears over the years.
    • Waves
      • 1. Waves are formed when the wind blows across the sea.
      • 2. Out at sea, the wind tugs at the surface of the water, to make the wave shape move.
      • 3. When a wave moves into shallower water, it is distorted until it 'breaks'.
      • 4. The features of a wave are the crests and the trough.
      • Constructive Wave
        • Strong swash
        • Weak backwash
        • Shallow sides
        • 7 waves a minute
      • Destructive Wave
        • Weak swash
        • Strong backwash
        • Steep sides
        • 15 waves a minute

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