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  • Coasts
    • Inputs
      • Marine - tide, waves, storm surges
        • Atmospheric - Weather/ climate, climate change, solar energy
          • People - Human Activity, and coastal management
    • Processes
      • Weathering, Mass movement, Erosion, Transport, Deposition
    • Outputs
      • Erosional Land-forms, Depositional land-forms, different types of coasts
    • Classifying Coasts
      • Geology, Energy Levels, Balance, Change in Sea level
        • No system or Coast is definitive
    • Morphology
      • Strata - layers of rock
        • Bedding Planes- Horizontal
          • Joints - vertical
            • Folds - formed by pressure
              • Faults - slips along fault planes
                • Dip - angle at which strata lies
    • Concordant, Parallel to sea, same rock type
      • Discordant, Perpendicular creating headlands and bays
    • Dalmatian, formed due to a rise in sea level, Volcanoes and Valleys
      • Haff, long spits of sand parallel
    • Constructive waves = small
      • Destructive waves = big
    • Further the ocean, the larger the pebble
    • Hydraulic Action - compression of air, causing cracks
      • Abrasion - base of cliff is eroded due to sediment load
        • Corrosion - chemical erosion
          • Attrition - rock vs rock, gets smaller each time
    • Headlands, Bays, Cliffs, Stack, Stump, Shoreline Platform, Wave cut Notches, Caves
    • Spits, Offshore bars, barrier beaches, tombolos, cuspate forelands
    • Swash Aligned, perpendicular waves / Drift Aligned, waves parallel to beach
    • Weathering
      • Mechnaical -freeze thaw, salt, wetting and drying
        • Biological - plant roots, Burrows, water becoming acidic
          • Chemical - acid rain = calcium carbonate
    • Long Shore Drift
    • Mass movement, soil creep, soil fluctuation, earth and mud flows, rock slides, rock falls, slumps
    • Eustatic - global, Isostatic - local
    • Holderness
      • boulder clay, chalk bands, small fetch but large swell causing destructive waves
    • Bangladesh
      • Storm Surge, upto 6 m  2007
    • Groynes, Rip Rap, sea walls, reventments, offshore breaker
      • Beach Nourishment, Cliff regeneration and drainage, Dune Stability, Marsh creation
    • ICZM look at whole area of coast rather then just local area
    • Weathering - breaks material
      • Erosion - transports material


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