Coastal Landforms

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  • Coastal Landforms
    • Spits
      • Longshore drift
        • Moves material along a coastline.
          • Spit forms when material is deposited.
            • Spit grows and develops a hook when the wind changes direction.
              • Waves cannot get past, allowing salt marshes to form.
    • Bars
      • Forms in the same way as a spit.
        • Bars connect two headlands.
          • Cut across a bay.
    • Tombolos
      • Forms the same way as a spit.
        • The spit joins the headland to a mainland.
    • Bays
      • In between two headlands.
        • Two sections of harder rock, with softer rock in between the two.
          • Hard rock is resistant.
          • Soft rock is easily eroded.
          • Bay forms as waves are refracted, so erode the coastline in a curve.
    • Stumps
      • Hydraulic Action
        • Creates sea caves and cracks in the rocks.
          • Sea caves eroded through to make an arch.
            • Arch collapses to form a stack.
              • Stack is eroded to form a stump.
    • Wave Cut Platforms
      • Weathering weakens the top of a cliff.
      • The sea erodes the base of the cliff, forming a wave cut notch.
        • The notch increases in size, causing the cliff to collapse.
          • Backwash causes the deposition to be taken out to see and the process repeats.
    • Cliffs
      • Softer rock erodes more easily to make more gentle cliffs.
        • Combination of erosion and weathering.
          • Harder rock creates steeper cliffs.
          • Erosion at the bottom of a cliff causes the cave to collapse and form a cliff.
      • Harder rock creates steeper cliffs.
    • Coves
      • A band of more resistant rock is horizontal to the sea, with the softer rock behind it.
        • Waves erode through a point in the harder rock.
          • Waves are refracted so erode the softer rock in a circular shape.
            • The sea comes in through the small gap in the resistant rock.


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