coastal processes 

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  • Created by: Fidele14
  • Created on: 16-04-18 17:50
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  • coastal processes
    • waves
      • destructive waves
        • these are usually high in proportion to length and it breaks downwards with greater force. a destructive wave has a weak swash and a strong backwash, the strong backwash removes sediments from the beach. also, the waves are steep and close together.
      • constructive waves
        • in a constructive wave there is a strong swash and a weak backwash. however in contrast to a destructive wave the strong swash brings sediments to build up the beach. the backwash is not strong enough and the waves are shallow and far apart.
    • weathering
      • freeze thaw weathering
        • freeze thaw weathering occurs when rocks are permeable or when they have holes (porous).  1. water enters cracks in the rock. 2. water temperatures drop, the water freezes and causes the crack to expand. 3. the ice melts and water makes its way deeper into the cracks. 4. the process then repeats until the rock completely breaks apart.
      • biological weathering
        • 1. plant roots can get into the small cracks in a rock. 2. as the roots grow the cracks become larger. 3. this then causes parts of the rock to break away.
      • chemical weathering
        • rainwater and sea water can be a weak acid but if the rocks are made up of limestone and chalk they can be dissolved by the acid in the rainwater.
    • mas movement
      • rockfall
        • this is when individual chunks or fragments of rock are falling off a cliff face, this is often a result of freeze thaw weathering.
      • landslide
        • this is where there is a sliding of blocks moving rapidly down slope along the linear shear plane, this is usually lubricated by water.
      • mudflow
        • saturated elements start to flow downhill which involves elements of sliding or slumping as well as flow.
      • rotational slip
        • this is the slumping of loose material often along a curved surface and also lubricated by water.
    • coastal erosion (caused by destructive waves)
      • hydraulic action
        • when the waves smash against the cliff, air becomes trapped and causes cracks in the rock and causes the rock to break apart.
      • abraision
        • this is when the pebbles rub/ grind along a rock platform and over time the rock becomes smooth.
      • attrition
        • this is when rocks which are carried by the sea are smashed against each other. they then break apart and become much smaller and rounded.
      • solution
        • this is when sea water dissolves certain types of rock such as limestone and chalk.
    • transportation
      • solution
        • this is when minerals i n rocks like chalk and limestone are dissolved and then carried in solution but the load is not visible
      • suspension
        • this is when small particles such as slits and clays are suspended in the flow of water
      • saltation
        • this is where small pieces of shingle or large sand grains are bounced along the sea bed.
      • traction
        • this is where pebbles and large materials are carried along the sea bed.
    • deposition
      • this occurs in constructive waves only. this is apparent when waves start to slow down and lose energy. it also has shallow water,  sheltered areas (bays) and little or no wind.

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