Coastal landscapes

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  • Coastal Landscapes
    • Waves and their characteristics
      • Constructive - Breaking waves push debris up, Low waves with crest far apart, gentle sloping wave front, formed by storms hundreds of km away, Strong swash, little backwash
        • Destructive- Waves close together, Waves become high with steep wave front, Breaking waves plunge onto beach, Little swash, Strong backwash.
    • Weathering types
      • Mechanical, Disintegration of rock, example - Freeze-Thaw
        • Chemical, Caused by chemical changes- example is acid rain
          • Biological - Caused by flora and fauna (Animals and plants)- example is rabbits burrowing into soil
    • Mass movement
      • Rockfall - rock breaks away due to freeze-thaw
        • Landslide- Blocks of rock slide downhill
          • Mudflow- saturated soil and weak rock flows downhill
            • Rotational slip - Slump of saturated soil and weak rock on a curved surface
    • Coastal erosion
      • Erosion is wearing away of landscape
        • Solution- Dissolving of soluble chemicals in rock
          • Corrasion - Rock fragments thrown at cliff and that scrapes rock
            • Abrasion- Pebbles grinding on rocky platform
              • Hydraulic action- Power of waves hitting a cliff, air is forced into rocks to break it up.
    • Transportation
      • Solution- Dissolved chemicles
        • Suspension- particles carried in the water
          • Traction- large pebbles rolling along the seabed
            • Saltation, hopping motion of particles too heavy for suspension
              • Longshore drift- movement of sediment, depends on prevailing wind.
      • Deposition happens when waves lose energy, creating beaches, mudflats and saltmarshes
    • Coastal  landforms at Swanage
      • Swanage- South coast of enland
        • Poole harbour- 2 spits have formed at mouth
          • Studland bay- lagoons, saltmarshes, sand dunes and beaches
            • Swanage bay- Sheltered with a broad sandy beach
              • Discordant coastline forms where there are bands of harder and softer rock
    • Hard engineering
      • Sea walls- rock barrier, curved to reflect waves,effective but unnatural and expensive
        • Groynes- Rock or timber structures to create a wider beach, not too expensive but can interupt longshore drift
          • Rock armour- piles of large boulders to absorb energy. cheap but obtrusive and rocks do not fit in
            • Gabions- rock filled wire cages, cheap but cages rust.
    • Soft engineering
      • Beach nourishment- sand is transported to coast and dumped, cheap, blends in but needs maintainance
        • Dune regeneration- stabilise dunes, cheap but can me damaged and is time consuming
          • Dune fencing- Fences are constructed to encourage new dune formations, little impact naturally but needs maintainance
    • Lyme Regis
      • Small costal town in Dorset
        • Issues- Unstable cliffs, Rapid erosion, damaged properties, Sea walls are being breached.
          • New sea walls and promenades, stabilising cliffs, creation of wide sand and shingle beach, extension of rock armour
            • Cost: Over 43 million pounds.
              • Quite successful
  • Made by Dylan Madden


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