CO2 and O2  transportation in the blood

A helpful mindmap for the transportation of CO2 and O2.

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  • CO2 and O2  transportation
    • CO2
      • Released from respiring tissues
        • 5% dissolved in plasma
        • 10% is combined with haemoglobin to form the compound called carbaminohaemoglobin.
        • 85% is transported in the form of hydrogen- carbonate
          • By Jack M
      • Releasing oxygen
        • As blood enters respiring tissues, the haemoglobin is carrying oxygen in the form of oxyhaemoglobin.
          • It's because of the oxygen tension of the respiring tissues is lower than that in the lungs because oxygen has been used in respiration.
    • Oxygen enters the respiring cells because CO2 and the acids it forms, such as carbonic acid, needs to be removed.  The hydrogen ions in hydrogen carbonate ions could cause acidic blood and in order to prevent this, the hydrogen ions are taken up by the haemoglobin in the blood.
      • Carbonic acid is catalysed by the enzyme called carbonic anhydrase.
      • Chloride shirt is where CL- ions enter the cell to maintain the charge of the cell.
    • haemoglobin + oxygen = oxyhaemoglobin
    • Fetal haemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen because it must be able to pick up oxygen where adult haemoglobin doesn't pick it up, or else the foetus wouldn't get any oxygen in its blood.
      • This is in the placenta.
        • This means the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve for fatal haemoglobin is to the left of adult haemoglobin.
    • The oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve
      • It's gradient is low at the top and bottom because it's most difficult to lose these oxygen molecules.
        • This is because of the shape of the molecule
          • After the first oxygen molecule has blinded with it, its shape change is known as a conformation change and means it allows the oxygen to bind with it more easily.
      • The bohr effect
        • This is where the S-curve moves to the right and haemoglobin releases more oxygen; more carbon dioxide is present.
          • This is needed for the respiring cells to receive more oxygen.  If not, they are unable to continue to aerobically respire!
        • Down and to the right
    • Equations
      • H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H+
        • Hydrogen carbonate
      • CO2 + H2O-> H2CO3
        • Carbonic acid
      • Hb is haemoglobin
        • HbO8 is oxyhaemoglobin


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