Cloning

  • Created by: mimiflan
  • Created on: 13-02-19 21:04
View mindmap
  • CLONING
    • PLANTS
      • Explants cut from plant with desirable characteristic from stem tips and side shoots
        • Explants sterilised to kill any microorganisms
          • explants grown 'in vitro' - placed in petri dish containing a nutrient medium containing nutrients needed to grow and growth hormones
            • cells in explants grow and divide into small plant - further explants from this can be taken to produce more
              • small plants taken out medium and planted in soil in glasshouses
    • ADULT MAMMALS
      • first mammal cloned = dolly 1996
      • nucleus of egg cell removed (enucleated)
        • diploid nucleus from mature udder cell inserted in its place
          • cell stimulated by electric shock
            • divided by mitosis (like normal fertilised egg)
              • dividing cell implanted into uterus of another sheep until born
    • PRODUCING HUMAN PROTEINS
      • cows and sheep make protein in milk
        • by transferring human genes into cells they can produce useful human proteins in milk
          • eg- can produce human antibodies - used in therapy for arthritis, cancer, multiple sclerosis
      • Transgenic chickens can produce human proteins in egg white
        • can be cloned so useful characteristic passed on

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biotechnology and the use of microbes in industry resources »