Clones in nature

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  • Clones in nature and plants
    • clones
      • exact copy, carries identical genetic material, derived same DNA
      • prokaryotes divide- Binary fission
        • DNA replicates, splits in two
      • Eukaryotes is mitosis
    • advantages of asexual reproduction
      • quick, takes advantage of resources + environment
      • all offspring have favourable characteristics
      • can complete if sexual cannot happen
    • disadvantages of asexual reproduction
      • reduces gene pool
      • all clones suseptible
    • vegetative propagation
      • structures 1 individual can grow, provide new individual
      • English elm
        • 1: Healthy elm with sucker
        • 2:elm shows Dutch Elm Disease
        • 3:main stem dead, suckers produced in stress
        • 4:clones shows symptoms of Dutch elm also
    • artificial propogation
      • cuttings: stem cut at nodes, treated with hormones
      • grafting: shoot section of woody plant joined to already growing root/stem. graft identical to previous plant, not graft plant
      • culture
        • 1: tissue taken from shoot- called explant.
        • 2: explant into nutrients growth medium
        • 3: cells divide, do not differentiate. bundle of cells is calus
        • 4: callus removed, placed into hormone growth medium
        • 5: growing shoots transferred to concentrated hormones for root growth
        • 6: plants move to green house, acclimatise then outside

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