Climate change 

Full mindmap on climate change!

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  • Climate change
    • It is anthropogenic
      • Human causes
        • Key facts
          • Industrialisation throughout many countries
            • Human causes
              • Key facts
                • Industrialisation throughout many countries
                  • China is the 2nd largest greenhouse emitter (after the USA)
                  • 2 factories open a week in China
                  • Largest carbon emitter is deforestation as these are carbon sinks and it releases more Carbon than any form of transport
            • China is the 2nd largest greenhouse emitter (after the USA)
            • 2 factories open a week in China
            • Largest carbon emitter is deforestation as these are carbon sinks and it releases more Carbon than any form of transport
        • Natural causes
          • Volcanoes
            • As volcanoes produce Sulphur Dioxide and ash, when these rise then it spreads around the Earth through the stratosphere by high level winds. The blanket of ash and gas stop sunlight reaching the Earth's surface.
              • In 1991, Mount Pinatubo erupted releasing 17 million tonnes of Sulphur Dioxide. This reduced sunlight by 10%, cooling the planet by 5% a year.
          • Sunspot theory
            • Variation in solar energy works in cycles.
              • Cooler periods such as the little ice age and warmer medieval period may have been caused by sunspot activity.
                • The climate has constantly changed throughout history,e.g. the shifts between the glacial periods
          • Asteroids
            • Comet/meteorite impact theory accounts for the extinction of dinosaurs 65 million year s ago.
            • Every 50 to 100 million years the Earth collides with a comet/ asteroids big enough to cause further devastation.
          • Orbits
            • The orbit changes from circular to elliptical and back again which is known as orbital eccentricity. This changes the amount of radiation of the sun and the axis tilt also changes known as the axial tilt.
              • In support of Milankovitch's theory is the fact that ice ages have occurred at a regular 100,000 year intervals.
                • Actual impact is suggested to be only changes in solar radiation.
        • Natural and human causes
      • It is a context hazard
        • It affects the whole world
          • Affects not only the environment but also they cause an effect on health, well-being and social (food security and water availability).
        • CHRONIC
          • Hard to predict the strength of the impacts and the result of climate change.
            • Positive/ negative feedback.
              • Negative feedback
                • Decreases the output of impacts that result from climate change.
                • e.g. melting ice sheets could dilute the oceans leading an effect on the oceanic circulation leading to a weakening warming powers of the North Atlantic.
              • Positive feedback
                • Further increases the output of climate change.
                • e.g. melting ice sheets leading to thermal expansion which also releases methane gas into the atmosphere and the Albedo effect.
          • effects of thermal expansion (heat causes water molecules to expand and the main reason for sea level rise); this can cause flooding.
          • It is hard to separate and distinguish between results from global warming and atmospheric and oceanic oscillations: el  Nino and la Nina.
        • COSTLY
          • Target reducing impacts of climate change which requires a huge sum of money.
        • MODELLING
          • To model climate change is complex because it has to take into account the feedback mechanisms and indirect impacts of climate change.
      • Greenhouse effect
        • The natural greenhouse effect is where the sun and its radiation allow it to be a force for weather and climate. The Earth and its atmosphere intercept the Sun’s radiation and around 30% is reflected back into space by clouds and reflective surfaces such as snow. Some radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s surface and some is re-emitted by gases known as greenhouse gases and these warm up the atmosphere by 33 degrees.
      • Enhanced greenhouse effect
        • What type of gases increase the greenhouse effect?
          • Carbon Dioxide
            • Makes up 0.04% of the atmosphere.
            • It is given off when carbon based fuels are burned.
          • Methane
            • It retains heat
            • Since 1950, annual emissions have increased four times faster than Carbon Dioxide.
          • Chloroflurocarbons
            • Absorb solar radiation
        • enhanced greenhouse effect is the amount of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere has increased by 25% since 1750 (when industrialisation began in the UK). 
      • Evidence of climate change
        • Short term
          • Details of weather records examined to show detailed changes in the climate.
          • Polar ice melt:  reduction at both poles as the changes in extent how climate changes.
          • Ecosystem changes: a change in temperatures show a change in availability of food and shelter for species that live there.
          • Sharp rise  in temperature in the last 1000 years
        • Medium term
          • Tree rings: a  new tree ring is formed each year as a tree grows and if the conditions were good then the tree ring will be thick. Scientists are able to take cores and check the thickness to see what the climate was like.
          • Retreating glaciers: scientists are able to understand  how big a glacier was and how far it has extended by looking at the position of rocks -these can be dated.
          • Historical records as they indirectly indicate different conditions in the past. E.g. agricultural conditions
          • The last glacial period ended around 18,000 years ago.
        • Long term
          • Ice cores: layers of ice and one formed per year.  Gases can be trapped inside and analysed.
          • Pollen analysis: pollen is preserved in sediment and it can be identified and dated. Scientists can compare the pollen to plants they know of now indicates if conditions were similar.
          • Sea level change: affected by volume of water and beaches can be dated and indicated that there was less water.
          • The climate has constantly changed throughout history,e.g. the shifts between the glacial periods
      • 1/3 of wildlife species have been lost in the UK
      • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) believe that if the temperature rises by 2 degrees then 50% of the plants will be destroyed.
      • Tipping point
      • How is/will the UK be affected?
        • If the sea level rises by 5 metres then the House of Parliament and Trafalgar Square will be flooded but the Thames Barrier will be ineffectual.
        • South of London, there are Mediterranean summers.
        • Plants and shrubs will be able to grow further north.
        • Areas and yields of cereal will increase.
        • Maize, peaches, vines and oranges will be grown in southern England.
        • Insufficient snow for winter sports in Aviemore to continue.
          • Sea defences cost over $10 billion.
      • Effects of climate change
        • Africa
        • The Arctic
      • Untitled


    Bethany Cunningham

    Save the PDF and use A3 to make it look bigger otherwise I wouldn't have fit it on.

    Pete Barnes: GR Director

    That's awesome and some great advice too very impressed :)

    Anisa Akhtar

    Pretty Good! Thanks this info helped me so much. As Pete Barnes said you gave some good advice and i am very impressed. 


    That was sooooo useful THnxx


    Mr A Gibson

    Rammed full of factual information in a clear mind map. Print out onto A3 and stick on your wall to help you learn about this topic. Relevant for pollution as well as climate change.

    Bethany Cunningham

    Wow. I didn't look at this until it said 'teacher recommended'. I am very grateful and it helped me a great deal with my AS exam for geography. Thank you very much.

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