CLIMATE CHANGE

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  • CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Tropical Savannas Impact
      • likely to get hotter. Would result in higher evapotranspiration and drought
      • close to equator rainfall is likely to increase- may cause flooding and increase in water-borne diseases e.g. cholera
        • but may increase agricultural productivity
      • Further from equator rainfall is likely to decrease= increase drought and result in ecosystem change
      • rainfall more variable
      • Increasing sea level= flood low-lying areas & increased sea temp.=damage to coral reefs due to coral bleaching
    • INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING
      • KYOTO PROTOCOL
        • an international agreement formed in 1997. 190 countries joined agreement to monitor and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
        • agreement divided countries into DEVELOPED and DEVELOPING
          • DEVELOPED agreed to cute emissions by 5% of 1990 levels by 2010
          • DEVELOPING didn't have to cut emissions but needed to monitor and report them
        • PROBLEMS
          • 4 Countries with high emissions (USA, CHINA INDIA AND AUSTRALIA) didn't sign up
            • believed it would effect economies and slow rate of growth
            • whats the point if higher pollutants not involved?
      • EARTH SUMMIT
        • The Earth summit followed in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, and set up the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
          • The objective of the UNFCCC was to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.
    • NATIONAL RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING
      • CHANGE ENERGY MIX OF COUNTRY
        • energy mix is mix of energy sources to meet its energy needs
          • e.g. fossil fuels, nuclear power. FRANCE 3/4 OF POWER FROM NUCLEAR
          • Replacing fossil fuels with nuclear power and renewable energy can help reduce climate change reducing emissions from power stations
            • UK- 40% emissions reduced by 2020 will be achieved with 30% of elec from renewable
            • More offshore wind farms being built, tidal power projects, solar panels, wind turbines
              • BUT
                • Needs more investment in nuclear and renewable to meet all energy needs so still use fossil fuels till that happens
                • environmental issues with nuclear power etc with waste
                • disrupt coastal environments
      • USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO CUT EMISSIONS FROM POWER STATIONS
        • Carbon capture and storage (CCS) reduce climate change by reducing emissions at power stations
          • involves capturing co2 and transporting it to where it can be stored safely in deep geological formations
          • BUT
            • technology still at development stage and problems identified
            • carbon may leak
      • ENCOURAGING ENERGY CONSERVATION AT HOME
        • reduce domestic fuel consumption
        • Financial incentives being offered to people who generated own elect through solar pannels etc
          • BUT
            • high initial cost// difficult to work out how energy efficient some houses are// restrictions on listed buildings
      • REDUCE EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORT
        • Encourage people to buy lower emissions vehicles
          • road tax free cars
          • incentives to those buying electric cars and hybrids
            • BUT
              • large number of old cars still on road
              • Expensive
              • producing electric cars still produce emissions
    • LOCAL RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING
      • Recycling Waste
        • less energy to recycle thanmake from scratch
          • UK prevents release of 10million tonnes of CO2 each year
        • transportation=emissions
      • Using cars less
        • reduce transport emissions
          • cars produce 2.7tonness of CO2
        • people prefer cars-safer faster etc
      • Buy Local
        • buying local produce=reduce transport emissions
          • heated greenhouse=high emissions
        • people like to have access to variety all year
      • Energy efficent Appliances
        • reduce fuel consumption
        • 50%more efficent than older models
        • throwing away of old=waster
        • making new= emissions

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