CLIMATE CHANGE CAUSES

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  • CLIMATE CHANGE
    • CAUSES
      • recent rise in global temperature (global warming)and the rate of increase in unheard of in history
      • scientific consensus that this temp. rise is caused by human enhancement of the greenhouse effect
        • GREENHOUSE EFFECT
          • Greenhouse gases absorb outgoing long wave radiation, so less is lost to space. Its essential to keep planet warm
            • but too much in atmosphere means too much energy is trapped and the planet warms up
          • Increasing CO2 and methane are main contributors towards recent rise but others include nitrous oxide, water vapour
          • HUMANS INCREASING GREENHOUSE GASES BY:
            • Burning fossil fuels
              • CO2 is released into atmosphere
              • since industrial rev in 19th C levels of atmospheric CO2 increased from 280ppm to 380ppm
            • Deforestation
              • plants remove CO2 from atmosphere and convert into organic matter using photsyn
              • when trees copped down stop taking in CO2 instead it is released when tress burnt
            • Farming
              • Using nitrogen-based fertiliser increases nitrous oxide
              • farming livestock produces alot of methane
    • GLOBAL IMPACTS
      • Global Climate would Change
        • pattern of precipitation expected to change
          • wet areas expected to get wetter (mid to high latitudes- North America and Europe)
          • precipitation expected to decrease by 5-20% in other areas due to ocean circulation and wind patterns
            • dry areas expected to get drier
              • e.g. subtropics, Australia
      • Glaciers, Sea Ice and Ice Caps continue to melt and sea level rise
        • Arctic sea ice decreased by 10-15% since 1950s
        • Average global sea level expected to rise by 0.09-0.88m between 1990 and 2100
          • this will flood coastal and low lying areas such as SE ASIA
      • More extreme weather events
        • storms, floods and droughts are likely to occur more often and be more severe due to changes in ocean circulation and wind patterns
      • Conflicts over water resources could increase
        • high temps. and reduced rainfall would reduce river flow and groundwater
          • some areas water decrease by 10% by 2050
            • water becomes valuable resource= conflict
      • Patterns of Agriculture would Change
        • Agricultural productivity will decrease in some areas due to reduced rainfall and droughts in Africa reduce productivity
          • Changes in types of crops grown. Crops prefer warmer conditions(grapes and melons) could be grown further north
        • Agricultural pests and diseases may increase in some areas.
          • European Corn Borer(pest of Maize) shifting northwards due to increased temp.
      • Increase in Illness and disease
        • more people likely to suffer from heat-related illnesse(e.g. heat stroke)
          • breathing problems likely to increase as air pollution increases
            • disease vectors e.g. mosquitoes with malaria spread to regions currently too cold
    • UK IMPACTS
      • UK CLIMATE WILL CHANGE
        • Temp. will increase. By 3.9oC by 2080
        • winter rainfall expected to increase. By upto 35% in western parts of UK
        • summer rainfall expected to decrease by upto 49% in South
      • SEA LEVELS WILL RISE
        • Rise by 13-76cm by 2095
          • worst affected would be Hull, Cardiff, London
            • Housing and agricultural land maybe lost
      • DROUGHTS MAY INCREASE
        • Southern England
      • PATTERNS OF AGRICULTURE CHANGE
        • Dairy farming may increase in the north
          • Crops adapted to warmer climates could be grown in South. Peaches and Grapes

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