Classifying Organisms

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Classifying Organisms
    • Animal Kingdom
      • Eukaryotic Cells
      • e.g Jellyfish, Humans, Heterotrophic feeding
      • Multicellular
      • Specialised organ systems
      • No cell walls
      • Group Non-Chordates (Invertebrates)
        • Phylum Nematoda (roundworms)
          • e.g. rotifers, nematodes
        • Phylum Mollusca (Molluscs)
          • e.g.bivalves, snails and slugs, octopuses and squids
        • Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
          • e.g. planaria, flukes, tapeworms
        • Phylum Annelids (segmented worms)
          • e.g. earthworms, leeches, marine worms (e.g. lungworm)
          • Basic body plan
            • A head end with a primitive brain and a nervous system running the length of the body
            • A body divided internally by partitions
            • A hydrostatic skeleton
            • A long, thin segmented body
          • Adaptations to gas exchange
            • A thin, permeable skin through which gaseous exchange occurs
          • Adaptations to transport
            • A closed circulatory system e.g. blood vessels containing an oxygen -carrying pigment such as haemoglobin
          • Reproduction
            • Specialised segments responsible for different functions
        • Phylum Cnidaria
          • e.g. Jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, Portuguese man-of-wars, corals
        • Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars)
          • e.g. sea cucumbers, sand dollars, sea urchins
        • Pylum Porifera
          • e.g. Sponges
        • Phylum Arthropods
          • e.g. include 4 classes; arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes (myriapods) and insects
          • Most numerous and successful of all the animal phyla
            • Basic body plan
              • A well developed brain
              • A hard exoskeleton made of chitin
                • Waterproof and therefore reduces water loss in terrestial arthropods
                • Protects internal organs
                • Provides a point of attachment for muscles
                • Doesn't grow with the animal as it is hard and fixed in shape
                  • Arthropod has to shed exoskeleton, leaving it vulnerable until the new one forms
              • Pairs of jointed legs
              • A body furthur divided into a head, thorax and abdomen
              • A fluid filled body cavity which surrounds the body organs
              • A body divided into segments
          • Class Insects
            • Basic body plan
              • Three pairs of jointed legs
              • A body furthur divided into head, thorax and adbomen
              • Two pairs of wings
              • A body divided into segments
              • Compound eyes
            • Adaptations to gas exchange
              • Openings on the exoskeleton called spiracles leading to a branched, chitin lines system of trachae
              • A hard outer skeleton made of chitin
              • Tissues supplied directly with oxygen
            • Reproduction
              • A complete or incomplete metamorphis
            • Adaptations to transport
              • Open circulatory system lacking haemoglobin
            • Other
              • Untitled
      • Group Chordates (Vertebrates)
        • Phylum Chordata
          • e.g.Vertebrates all have:
            • A vertebral column (backbone)
            • An internal skeleton
            • A well developed brain, enclosed in a cranium
            • Subdivided into 5 classes
              • Reptiles
                • Double, closed circulation
                • Gas exchange via internal lungs
                • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops in amniotic egg
                • Body covered with dry, waterproof scales
                • Parental care shown in some species
              • Amphibians
                • Primitive, double, closed circulation
                • Gas exchange via skin and simple external lungs
                • Reproduction via external fertilisation
                • Body covered with moist skin
                • Usually little or no parental care
              • Birds
                • Double, closed circulation
                • Gas exchange via lungs with air sacs
                • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops in amniotic egg
                • Body covered with feathers
                • Parental care shown in most species
              • Fish
                • Single, closed circulation
                • Gas exchange via gills
                • Reprodution (mainly) via external fertilisation
                • Body covered with scales
                • Usually little or no parental care
              • Mammals
                • Double, closed circulation
                • Gas exchange via well developed lungs
                • High degree of parental care; young fed on milk
                • Body covered with fur/hair
                • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops internally and receives nourishment via the placenta
                • Mammals can be divided into:
                  • Placentals
                    • e.g. Humans and most others
                    • The young develop in the mothers womb and receive nourishment via the placenta before they are born
                  • Marsupials
                    • e.g. Kangaroo's
                    • Young born in a very immature state and develop in the females pouch
    • Fungi Kingdom
      • May be multicellular (Mushroom) or Unicellular (Yeast)
      • e.g. Yeast, mushrooms, Heterotrophic feeding (often saphrophytic or parasitic)
      • Body made up of hyphae threads forming a mycelium. Reproduce using spores
      • Eukaryotic cells
      • Chitin cell walls
    • Protoctista Kingdom
      • Mostly Unicellular but can be Multicellular e.g. seaweed
      • e.g. Amoeba, seaweeds, Combination of plant, animal and fungi characteristics. Feeding is hetertrophic or Autotrophic (seaweed)
      • No specialised structures
      • Eukaryotic Cells
      • Cellulose cell walls
    • Plant Kingdom
      • Multicellular
      • e.g Trees, grasses, ferns, and green algae. Autotrophic feeding (Photosynthesis)
      • Specialised structures e.g. leaves, stems, roots
      • Eukaryotic Cells
      • Cellulose cell walls
    • Prokaryote Kingdom
      • No specialised structures
      • Much smaller then eukaryotic cells
      • e.g. All bacteria Unicellular Saprophytic or autotrophic feeders
      • No nucleus (or any membrane bound organelles) Loop of DNA. Smaller ribosomes than eukaryotic cells
      • Prokaryotic Cells
      • Cell wall made of murein

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Ecology, ecosystems and environmental biology resources »