Classification of carbohydrates

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  • Classification of carbohydrates
    • Polysaccharides
      • Starch (alpha-glucans)
        • Amylose (1,4 - bonds broken by amylase), Amylopectin (1,4 and 1,6 - 1,6 bonds broken by dextrinase), modified starch
        • Grains, bread, rice, potatoes, seeds
      • Non-starch-polysaccharides (NSP)
        • Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, arabinoxylates, plant gums and mucilages, hydrocolloids
        • Oats, beans, pulses, vegetables, unrefined cereals and grains and products made form them
    • Sugars
      • Monosaccharides
        • Glucose, fructose, galactose
        • Fruits and honey
      • Disaccharides
        • Sucrose, lactose, maltose (1-4), trehalose (1,1)
        • Fruits, vegetables, milk, sweets, chocolate, cake
      • Polyols
        • Sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, xylitol, erythritol, isomalt, maltitol
        • Some fruit, manufactured and used commercially as a substitute for sucrose
    • Oligosaccharides
      • Malto-oligosaccharides (alpha-glucans)
        • Maltodextrins (derived from starch)
        • Used in industry as sweeteners, fat substitutes and to modify texture
      • Non-alpha-glucan oligosaccharides
        • Raffinose, stachyose, fructo- and glalacto- oligosaccahrides, polydextrose, inulin
        • Peas, beans,lentils, artichokes, chicory, onion, leek, garlic, human milk

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