Classification

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  • Classification
    • Kingdoms
      • Prokaryote Kingdom
        • Prokaryotic cells
        • E.g. All bacteria. Saprophytic/Autotrophic feeders
        • No specialised structures
        • Much smaller than eukaryotic cells
        • No nucleus
        • Cell wall made of murein
    • In the hierarchical system, the kingdoms are subdivided into phyla, which are furthur divided into classes
      • Some phyla contain more species than others and each phylum includes organisms based on a shared body plan
        • The kingdom 'Animalia' is divided into 9 phyla, which can be grouped into non-chordates or invertebrates (95%) and chordates or vertebrates (5%)
    • Non-chordates (invertebrates)
      • Porifera
        • e.g. sponges
      • Cnidaria
        • e.g. jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones
      • Nematoda
        • e.g. rotifers and nematodes
      • Mollusca
        • e.g. bivalves, snails and slugs, octopus and squid
      • Annelida
        • e.g. earth worms, leeches and marine worms
          • Long, thin segmented body
          • A body divided internally by partitions
          • A head end with a primitive brain and a nervous system running the length of the body
          • A hydrostatic skeleton
          • A thin, permeable skin through which gas exchange occurs
          • A closed circulatory system
          • Specialised segments responsible for different functions
      • Echinodermata
        • e.g. sea cucumbers, sea urchins
      • Arthropods
        • e.g. arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes and insects
          • A body divided into segments
          • A body furthur divided into a head, thorax and abdomen
          • A hard outer exoskeleton made of chitin
            • Waterproof and therefore reduces water loss in terrestrial arthropods
            • Provides a point of attachment for muscles
            • Protects internal organs
            • It is hard and fixed in size and shape and does not grow with the animal
          • A well developed brain
          • Pairs of jointed legs
          • A fluid filled body cavity (haemocoel) which surrounds the body organs
    • Chordates
      • Cordata
        • Fish
          • Body covered in scales
          • Gas exchange via gills
          • Single, closed circulation
          • Reproduction via external fertilisation
          • Usually little or no parental care
        • Amphibians
          • Body covered with moist skin
          • Gas exchange via skin and simple internal lungs
          • 'primitive' double, closed circulation
          • Reproduction via external fertilisation
          • Usually little or no parental care
        • Reptiles
          • Body covered with dry, waterproof scales
          • Gas exchange via internal lungs
          • Double, closed circulation
          • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops in amniotic egg
          • Parental care shown in some species
        • Birds
          • Body covered with feathers
          • Gas exchange via lungs with air sacs
          • Double, closed circulation
          • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops in amniotic egg
          • Parental care shown in most species
        • Mammals
          • Body covered with fur/hair
          • Gas exchange via well developed lungs
          • Double, closed circulation
          • Reproduction via internal fertilisation. Embryo develops internally
          • High degree of parental care
    • Phylum: Arthropods, Class: Insects
      • A body divided into segments
      • A body furthur divided into a head, thorax and abdomen
      • Three pairs of jointed legs
      • Two pairs of wings
      • Compound eyes
      • A hard outer skeleton made of chitin
      • Openings on the exoskeleton called spiracles leading to a branched, chitin lined system of tracheae
      • Tissues supplied directly with oxygen
      • An open circulatory system lacking haemoglobin
      • A complete or incomplete metamorphosis
      • In the evolution of some insect groups, some features may have been lost

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