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  • Classification
    • classification is the act of arranging organisms into groups based on their similarities or differences
    • Taxonomy is the study of classification. the naming system used in classification is the binomial system
    • naming an organism: the first part of the name is the genus and it has a capital letter. the second part is the species with a lower case letter
    • phylogeny is the study of the evolutionary history of groups of organisms
    • 5 kingdoms:
      • prokaryote- Eg bacteria, single celled, no nucleus, less than 5ym
      • protoctista: Eg Algae, eukaryotic cells, usually in water, single celled or simple multicellular
      • Fungi Eg Yeast, eukaryotic chitin cell walls, saprotrophic, reproduce using spores
      • Plantae- Eg ferns, eukaryotic, multi-cellular, cellulose cell walls, can photosynthesise, contain chlorophyll, autrophic
      • animalia: Eg mammals, aukaryotic, multi-cellular no cell walls, heterotrphic
    • change in the system
      • not just based on observable feastures, but now molecular and embyolocical
      • 1) molecular evidence- similarities and proteins and DNA mean organisms are more closely related
        • you can compare storage and the base sequence of nucleotides and amino acids
      • 2) embyological evidence- looking at similarities in the early stages of development
      • 3) the fossil record- provides evidence of how organisms have evolved and how closely related they are
    • the three domains
      • organisms that contain a nucleus are placed in Eukaryotes
      • organisms that fall in the prokaryotes, are seppertated into archaea and bacteria
      • molecular evidence: the enzyme RNA polymerase is different in bacteria and archaea, also archaea all have similar histones but are different to bacteria
      • cellular evidence: bonds of the lipids in the cell membrane are different for archea and bacteria
      • all organisms -----> the three kindgoms --> 5 kingdoms


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