Conditioning

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  • Created by: Anj_
  • Created on: 14-05-15 12:19
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  • Classical Cond...
    • IVAN PAVOLV (1904)
      • unconditioned stimulus that will lead to an automatic response - cannot be trained
        • food, sex, pain
      • neutral stimulus that doesn't lead to instinctive reaction
        • bell, musical note
      • Timing between CS (bell) and UCS (food) is crucial for learning
        • Joint processing is needed to form associations - get food while bell still rings
      • UCR and CR must be equal by the end
      • Research used to explain phobias
        • The Case of Little Albert
          • Phase 1 (before): UCS = loud noise UCR = crying
            • Phase 2 (during): CS=pet rat CS+UCS = UCR
              • Phase 3 (After): CS leads to CR
        • Stimulus generalisation- responding to stimulus similar but distinct from CS in the same way
          • Little Albert: pet rabbit, cotton wool, men's beards, santa
    • extinction of conditioned response - If after conditioning, CS is presented alone, CR gradually diminishes
    • Research used to explain phobias
      • The Case of Little Albert
        • Phase 1 (before): UCS = loud noise UCR = crying
          • Phase 2 (during): CS=pet rat CS+UCS = UCR
            • Phase 3 (After): CS leads to CR
      • Stimulus generalisation- responding to stimulus similar but distinct from CS in the same way
        • Little Albert: pet rabbit, cotton wool, men's beards, santa
    • 'Classical conditioning curve' - how the ability to respond to stimuli increases
      • process of learning
    • habituation - unlearning the association between feared stimulus and aversive response
  • Operent Cond...
    • A process to modify behaviour through reinforcement
      • Learning through consequence
    • THORNDIKE: Laws of Effect
      • Positive Law of Effect - if a response is followed by a positive consequence more likely to happen again
      • Negative Law of Effect - if a response is followed by a negative response, less likely to happen again
      • Response is followed by 'a reinforcer' or 'a punisher'
    • B.F. SKINNER (1948)
      • Presented food every 12 seconds to hungry pigeons
      • Food was timed and delivered independent of behaviour
      • Pigeons developed stereotypical behaviour between food deliveries
        • Pigeons thought their behaviour caused food to appear
          • Food was timed and delivered independent of behaviour
    • AYLLON & MICHAEL (1959)
      • Improves behavioural symptoms in schizophrenic patients
      • 'Token Economies' - good behaviour rewarded with tokens which could be exchanged for cigarettes or food

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