Class differences in achievement- labelling

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  • Class differences in achievement- labelling
    • Nell Keddie- brighter m/c students in higher streams were taught more abstract terms and concepts, preparing them better for further/ higher education
    • Aaron Cicourel and John Kitsuse- studied education counsellors in an American high school. Labeling can disadvantage w/c students, often advised against higher level courses and college, judged largely on the basis of their social class or race
    • Ray Rist- American kindergarten- teachers used home background info and appearance to group children. M/c fast learners (tigers) sat next to her, were given more opportunities and encouragement. W/c children ('cardinals', 'clowns') had low-level books
    • Howard Becker- interviewed 60 Chicago High School teachers, who judged pupils on how close they were to the ideal pupil. W/c did not achieve this in terms of work, conduct or appearance
    • David Gillborn and Deborah Youdell- m/c students are more likely to be targeted 5 A*-Cs GCSEs and there for were put into highest sets. W/c / black pupils were put in lower sets and tiers, denied the knowledge and opportunity needed to get good grades
    • Rachel Sharp and Tony Green- studied Mapledene (child-centred school) - m/c children were first to seek help when ready to learn. W/c children, instead, were offered compensatory play in the Wendy house


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