Class differences in achievement (external factors)

This covers the all of the external factors in class differences in educational achievement 

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  • Class differences in achievement (external factors)
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Intellectual develpoment
        • Douglas found that working class pupils scored lower  on tests than middle class
        • Working class lack books, educational toys and activities
        • Middle class mothers purposely find ways to encourage their children to read at an early age, preparing them for school
      • Language
        • Bernstein developed 2 types of speech found in classes
          • Restricted code is the speech typically of working class
            • Limited vocabulary
          • Elaborate code is the speech typically of the middle class
            • Wider vocabulary
            • explain abstract ideas
            • Puts them at an advantage as this is used by teacher, books and exams
      • Attitudes and values
        • Douglas found that working class familise put less value on education and more no working
          • They have less motivation because their parents gave them no ambition of achievement to strive for
        • Most working class children create a anti-school sub-culture
        • Sugarman agrues that working class subculture has 4 key roles that act as a barrier to educational achievement
          • Fatalsim
            • "whatever will be, will be" and there is nothing you can do to change your status
          • Collectivsim
            • valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
          • Immediate gratification
            • seeking pleasure now rather than making scarifies in order to get the future
          • Present-time orientation
            • Untitled
    • Material deprivation
      • Housing
        • overcrowding can have a direct effect by making it harder for children to study
        • lack of space and exploring can impair children mentally
        • Poor housing can effect chidlrens health, with damp and the cold
      • Diet and health
        • Young people in poorer houses have lower intakes of vitamins and minerals
        • Children from poorer households are more liekly to have emotional or behavioral problem
      • Cost of education
        • Poorer clothes and hand-me-downs lead to bullying
          • leading to  children not wanting to learn or go to school
    • Cultural capital
      • Bourdieu argues that both cultural and material factors contribute to educational achievement
        • Cultural capital refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language and tastes and abilities
          • School system favors middle class because they are more likely to pass
            • Leading to working class "getting the message" that they are unwanted
          • Richer families are able to send their children to private school, who will get better qualifications
          • Middle class families can afford houses in the catchment areas of schools high up in the league tables
      • Gewirtz: marketisation and parental choice
        • She studied 14 London schools and interviewed both teachers and parents
          • Her investigation found that Bourdieu was right


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