outline some of the ways in which factors in childrens home backgrounds may affect WC underachievement.

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  • outline some of the ways in which factors in childrens home backgrounds may affect WC underachievement.
    • intro
      • Marxists offer many explanations. usually to do with cultural and material deprivation.
        • lack of correct attitudes, values, lack of money and intellectual and linguistic deprivation.
    • 1.
      • intellectual  deprivation.
        • WC parents lack ability to play educational games and do activities to stimulate their child's intellectual development.
          • Bernstien and Young-MC parents more likely to play with these toys and games giving MC pupils a head start at school.
            • therefore MC pupils more likely to start school able to read and do basic maths and will achieve higher SATs results.
            • criticised by Keddie for 'victim blaming'
              • WC parents are blamed for WC underachievement. their culture is different, not deficient.
                • the education system is dominated by MC values.
          • e.g. toys such as leapfrog (a digital book that reads and spells out sentences) may boost literacy skills. and abacus will help boost numeracy skills.
    • 2.
      • material deprivation (lack of income)
        • can lead to poor diet and health. affects a child's immune system.
          • miss school due to illness. they will miss out on knowledge.
        • poor housing conditions
          • overcrowded house- child cant study/revise as it is too busy/noisy. leads to failure and WC underachievement.
        • Bordieu-sociologists shouldn't ignore the lack of cultural capital as well.
          • MC parents can pass on educational skills and values needed to succeed
          • WC parents cant pass on any valuable skills.
    • 3.
      • linguistic deprivation
        • lack of ability to use appropriate language, to be understood by teachers and understand teachers.
          • Bernstein WC parents teach WC pupils to speak in restricted code rather than MC elaborated codes.
            • restricted code is context bound. simple grammar, unsophisticated language.
              • in exams this type of language wont get marks as it cant be understood.
              • elaborated code will get the high grades for the sophisticated language and complex language used.
          • Tyrona and WIlliams - WC students speaking in restricted code doesn't lead to WC underachievement but that WC speech code isn't valued by MC education sytem
            • education system has a speech hierarchy. MC at top and WC at bottom.
    • conc- many outside school factors contribute.
      • material deprvation theorists have been criticised for ignoring cultural factors
        • e.g.lack of cultural capital.
      • cultural deprivation thivation theorists are criticised for blaming WC culture for WC underachievement.
  • 12 marks
  • criticised by Keddie for 'victim blaming'
    • WC parents are blamed for WC underachievement. their culture is different, not deficient.
      • the education system is dominated by MC values.

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