Language and Class Theorists

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  • Class Theorists
    • Labov (1966) - NY department store study
      • Three different stores: Sacks (upper), Macy's (Middle), S Kleins (lower)
      • Study of the post vocalic /r/ linked to prestige in the American Accent
      • More common in Macy's, however more frequently in Sacks than in S Kleins
      • HOWEVER not the same in the UK - RP is the prestige accent - /r/ implies west country
        • Overt Prestige
        • "haughty and unfriendly" - Trudgill, 2000
        • "Lacking in human warmth and caring" - Giles et al
    • Trudgill (1974) - social class and regional Dialect
      • Norwich study - 5 social class divisions - lwc, mwc, uwc, lmc,mmc
      • Studying the use of glottal stops, /ng/ at the end of words, /h/ at the beginning
      • women's language was closer to RP - Insecurity?
      • men of the middle class were closer to regional forms- macho
    • Berstein (1971)
      • Position orientated families
        • Restricted code
        • 'closed' families
        • working class
        • personal
        • Context Bound
        • Common assumtions
      • Person orientated families
        • 'open family'
        • middle class
        • impersonal
        • context free
        • less shared attitudes
        • Elaborate code
    • Cheshire (1982)
      • nonstandard forms = approval of minor criminal activity, swearing, fighting
      • Study of two groups of teenagers - Group A - standard forms, Group B - nonstandard forms


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