Class - external factors

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  • Class - external factors
    • material deprivation
      • Waldfogel and Washbrooke
        • Poverty + poor living conditions so study at home is harder, poor sanitary means more risk of illness so more sick days - missing out on school
      • Cooper and Stewart
        • Living in poverty may effect the cognitive behavioural development of a student
    • Cultural deprivation
      • Douglas
        • Parent attitudes are important for the educational success of their children - working-class parents care less which disadvantage their children
      • Sugarman
        • Working-class culture has the wrong norms and values in order to succeed in the education system which typically favours the middle-class culture
      • Bernstein
        • Restricted and elaborated code - working-class children speak in a restricted code which inhibits their examination success.
    • Cultural Capital
      • Bourdieu
        • Believes that middle-class children have a better cultural capital which allows them to better succeed in education
    • Class subcultures
      • Willis
        • Working-class Lads had an anti-school subculture which lowered their educational success - they had no interest in the education system and wanted to go into manual labour instead
      • Archer
        • Working-class children believed university wasn't for them because they believed they were stupid and "not exactly star pupils" - they had Nike-identities to gain merit in their own culture


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