Class differences in achievement- external factors

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Class differences in achievement- External factors
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Language
        • Hubbs-Tait et al(2002) found that parents who use language to challenge their children improved cognitive performance.
          • Feinstein found that educated parents are more likely to do this.
        • Berieter and Engelmann claim that language used in lower-class homes is deficient- communicate by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases.
        • Speech code- Bernstein: Restricted code- used by working-class, limited vocab, based on use of short, unfinished, grammatically simple sentences. Elaborated code- used by middle-class, wider vocab, longer and more complex sentences.
          • Give middle-class children an advantage at school- elaborated code used by teachers, textbooks and exams.
      • Parents' education
        • Study by Douglas (1964) found that working-class parents placed less value on education- therefore less ambitious for their children, took less interest.
        • Feinstein- parents' own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement.
          • Parenting style- Educated parents style emphasis consistent discipline and high expectations of their children. Less educated parents style is marked by harsh or inconsistent discipline.
          • Parents' educational behaviour- educated parents are more aware of what is needed to assist their children's educational progress, e.g. reading to them, taking them on educational trips.
          • Use of income- Educated parents have higher income, buy books, toys, nutritional food to help their children,
      • Working-class subculture
        • Sugarman (1970)- working-class subculture has 4 key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement.
          • Fatalism- belief in fate, 'there is nothing you can do to change your status'.
          • Collectivism- valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual.
          • Immediate gratification- seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future.
          • Present-time orientation-not having long term goals.
        • Compensatory education: aim to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and communities in deprived areas.
    • Material deprivation
      • Housing
        • Poor housing can affect pupils' achievement- overcrowding can have a direct affect, making it harder to study.
          • For younger children, development can be impaired through lack of space for safe play and exploration.
        • Poor housing can have indirect affects- children in crowded homes at more risk of accidents- result in absence from school.
      • Diet and health
        • Howard (2001)- young people from poorer homes have lower intake of energy, vitamins and minerals- weakens immune system resulting in absence from school.
          • Children from poorer homes are also more likely to have emotional or behavioural problems.
            • Wilkinson (1996)- among ten year olds, lower the social class, the higher the rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders.
            • Blanden and Machin (2017)- Children from low income families were more likely to engage in fighting, temper tantrums- disrupting schooling.
      • Financial support and the costs of education
        • Lack of financial support means that children from poor families have to do without equipment and miss out on educational opportunities,
          • Poor children have to make do with hand me downs and cheaper, unfashionable equipment- result in isolation, bullying.
        • Smith and Noble (1995)- poverty acts as a barrier to learning in other ways- inability to afford private schooling or tuition.
        • Lack of funds also results in poorer children needing to find work- babysitting, paper rounds. Has negative affect on school work.
      • Fear of debt
        • Attitudes towards debt may deter working-class students from going to uni.
        • Data from nationwide questionnaire- Callender and Jackson found that working-class students are more debt averse.
    • Cultural capital
      • Bourdieu
        • Cultural capital
          • Refer to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle-class.
            • Middle-class children acquire the ability to grasp, analyse and express abstract ideas- more likely to develop intellectual interests and an understanding of what the educational system requires for success.
            • Working-class children find that school devalues their culture as 'rough' and inferior- lack of cultural capital leads to exam failure,
        • educational and economic capital
          • Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum and gain qualifications.
          • Middle-class parents can convert their economic capital into educational capital- send their children to private schools.
        • Test of Bourdieu's ideas
          • Sullivan (2001)- questionnaire to conduct a survey on 465 pupils in four schools- found that those who read complex fiction and watched serious TV documentaries developed wider vocab and greater cultural knowledge, indicating greater cultural capital.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »