Topic 1 of Educaton for Sociology

  • Created by: Megnicpip
  • Created on: 30-05-18 16:58
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  • Class Differences in Achievement
    • Cultural Deprivation
      • Centre for Longitudinal Studies: by the age of 3 children from under privileged backgrounds are already up to one year behind others and this gap widens with age
      • Language
        • Hubbs-Tait et al: where parents use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own understanding or abilities
          • Feinstein: educated parents are more likely to be used in this way
        • Feinstein: educated parents are more likely to use praise which helps develop a sense of their own competence
        • Engelmenn et al: language used in lower class homes is deficient, they communicate by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases
        • Speech Codes
          • The Restricted Code: typically used by working class, limited vocabulary, grammatically simple, context bound, not analytic.
          • Elaborated Code: typically used by middle class, wider vocabulary, grammatically more complex, varied and communicates abstract ideas, context free, explicit.
          • The elaborated code is used by exams, textbooks and teachers putting middle class as an advantage.
      • Parents Education
        • Educated parents parenting style emphasises consistent discipline and high expectations supporting and encouraging their  children to learn.
        • Educated parents are more aware of what is needed to assist their childs progress
      • Working Class Subculture
        • Fatalism: 'whatever will be, will be' and there is nothing you can do to change your status
        • Collectivism: valueing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
        • Immediate gratification: seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices
        • Present-time orientation: seeking the present as more important than the future and so having no long term goals
      • Evaluation
        • Keddie: working class children are culturally different, not culturally deprived
        • Troyna et al: it is not the childs language but the schools attitude towards it
    • Material Deprivation
      • Housing
        • Overcrowding, temporary accommodation, nowhere to do homework, rowdy neighbours, sharing bedrooms
        • Indirect effects: crowded areas increase risks of an accident, cold or damp housing can cause more ill health
      • Diet and Health
        • Howard: young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, nutrition, vitamins and minerals.
        • Wilkinson: the lower the social class the higher rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders
      • Financial support and the cost of education
        • This may result in isolation, stigmatisation, bullying from peers
        • Smith et al: poverty acts as a barrier, such as an inability to afford private schooling, tuition and poorer quality schooling
      • Fear of debt
        • Callender et al: working class students are more debt averse and see more costs than benefits in going into university
        • Reay: working class students were more likely to apply to local universities so that they can live at home and help their families.
    • Cultural Capital
      • Education, economic and cultural capital are all held by the middle classputting them at an advantage


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