Class and education

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  • Class and Education
    • External Factors
      • cultural factors
        • differences in norms & values
          • socialisation, speech codes, attitudes to education
        • cultural deprivation theory (3 facors responsible for WC under achievement)
          • 3 factors responsible for WC under achievement
            • language
              • Bernstein - elaborated vs restricted code
            • parents education
              • Feinstein - MC parents are better educated so their children gain an advantage
            • WC subculture
              • immediate gratification, fatalism, low value on education
          • criticisms
            • ignores importance of material factors such as poverty
            • ignores impact of school factors eg. labelling
            • victim blaming. Critics argue WC are not culturally deprived instead have a different culture from the school
      • material factors
        • adequate housing, diet, income
        • material deprivation
          • poor housing, overcrowding & damp rooms leaving nowhere to do work. frequent house moves meaning changes of school
          • poor diet, can lead to illness, absence from school or lack of concentration
          • financial cost of education. trips, books, computers, tutors
            • Callender and Jackson - WC students are more debt averse. They see more costs than benefits of going to uni.
      • cultural capital theory
        • Marxists eg Bourdieu argue MC pupils are more successful than WC because their parents possess more capital.
          • economic & cultural capital
          • MC use their greater economic & cultural capital to obtain educational capital (qualification)
            • qualifications allow children to get MC jobs & more economic capital, reproducing MC. rich stay rich poor stay poor
    • Internal factors
      • labelling
        • Becker argues teachers label MC children as 'ideal pupils' and prefer to teach them rather than WC children
        • self-fulfilling prophecy
      • streaming
        • Douglas  - IQ of pupils labelled as less able and placed in bottom stream actually fell over time, whereas IQ of those in the top stream increased
      • pupil subcultures
        • pro & anti school  -  accept/reject school values




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