Class and Educational achievement

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  • Class and Education
    • Internal factors
      • Becker and Keddie say that teachers evaluate students based on their social class.
      • Ball - pupils in top streams tend to be from higher classes
      • Woods - non conformist actions in schools tend to come from working class students i.e. anti-school subcultures.
      • Negative labelling leads to the self-fulfilling prophecy of failure.
    • Material Deprivation
      • In 1997, the Rowntree Foundation classified 1 in 10 children as poor.
      • Halsey - most important reason why WC students don't stay on at school is lack of financial support.
      • Poverty and poor living conditions cause health problems and absence from school.
      • WC students have less money for books, school trips uniform,
    • Cultural deprivation
      • Douglas - levels of parental interest are the most important factor.
      • Middle class parents are more likely to attend school events.
        • Working class parents may not be less interested bu the may work inconvenient shifts etc.
      • Bourdieu - middle class parents are more likely to have the right kind of cultural capital.
        • Middle class parents pass on cultural capital to their children - this is called cultural reproduction.
    • Attitudes
      • Sugarmann - WC seek immediate gratification.
      • Hyman - WC place a low value on education
      • Bernstein - WC students aren't comfortable with the style of language required in schools.
        • WC = restricted code
        • Middle class students use the same language code as teachers.


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