'Clash of civilisations'

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  • 'Clash of civilisations'
    • Huntington
      • Conflicts have intensified since the collapse of communism and are symptons of the clash of civilisations.
      • Identifies 7 civilisations: Western, Latin American, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu and Slavic-Orthodox.
      • Each has a common cultural background and history that is identified with one religion.
      • Shared religion creates social cohesion within civilisations but causes conflict between them.
        • This is true in this globalised world as religious differences have become a major source of identity due to the fall of communism.
      • Gloabalisation also makes nation-states less important as a source of identity and makes contact betwwen civilisations easier, increasing the likelihood of old-conflicts re-emerging.
      • See's religious diffrences are creating a new set of hostile 'use and them' relationships, with increased competition between ivilisations for economic/ military power.
      • He also sees history as a struggle of 'progress against barbarism' and predicts growing conflict between 'the West and the rest'.
      • Fears the emergence of new anti-western military alliances are urges the west to reassert its Christian identity.
    • Criticisms
      • Jackson - Huntington's work as an example of orientalism.
        • A western ideology that streotypes Eastern nations and people (especially Muslims) as untrustworthy, inferior or fanatical 'Others'.
      • Casanova - Huntington's work ignores religious divisions within the 'civilisations' e.g. Sunni and Shi'a Islam.
      • Horrie & Chippindale - clash of civilisations is a misleading neo-conservative ideology that protrays the whole of Islam as an enemy.
      • Armstong - hostitlity towards the West is a reaction too western foreign policy in the Middle East.
    • Inglehart and Norris
      • Sexuality divides the West from the Muslim world and not democracy as there are more differences when it comes to abiortion, divorce, gender equality.
      • As Western views become more liberal, Muslim views stay traditional.
      • They see democracy has become the political ideology to gain global appeal but there is no global eppeal about self-expression values.
      • 'These divergent values constitute the real clash of civilisations between Muslim societies and the West.

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