Child language acquisition - speaking

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  • CLA - Speaking
    • Chomsky
      • Inbuilt capacity to acquire language (LAD)
        • Look for errors such as overexstention which cannot have been copied
      • Nativist theory
    • Skinner
      • Social interaction.
        • Imitate and copy adults, conditioned by positive or negative reinforcement
          • Look for imitation
    • Stages
      • One word (holophrastic) 12-18 months
        • Single words to take place of complex grammatical structures ('milk' means I want some milk please)
        • Errors - over/under exstension
        • First words
          • Katherine Nelson
            • Naming (60% nouns)
            • Actions/ events
            • Describing/ modifying
            • Personal/social
      • Two word 18-24 months
        • Start to combine words (understanding of semantics is gained)
        • Usually in a grammatically correct sequence (SV 'Jenny slept') (VO 'drink juice') (SC 'Daddy busy')
        • Supprt for LAD comes from fact that a lot of two word phrases can't have been copied from adults ('more outside') ('i Ruuned')
      • Telegraphic 24-36 months
        • Three or more combined
          • Subject and verb ( + object, complement, or adverbial)
        • Missing gramatical elements
          • Such as: articles (a), auxillaries (be), prepositions (on), conjuctions (because)
      • Post-telegraphic 36+months
        • More gramatically complex
          • Less errors 'runned becomes ran'
          • Acquire fucntion words, tenses and subordinating/coordinating conjuctions
    • Phonology
      • Pre-verbal
        • 0-4 months Vegative
        • 4-7 Cooing
        • 8-12 Babbling
          • Repeated patterns of constanants and vowels. Reduplicated monosyllables (mama)
            • Phonemic expansion and contraction begins
              • 8-12 Babbling
                • Repeated patterns of constanants and vowels. Reduplicated monosyllables (mama)
                  • Phonemic expansion and contraction begins
                    • Number of different phonemes are increased (phonemic expression)
              • Number of different phonemes are increased (phonemic expression)
        • 9-12 Proto words
          • Not matching actual words but used consistently for the same meaning
            • Phonemic contraction
              • Retains sounds of its native language but discards one it knows aren't needed.
      • Errors
        • Deletion
        • Substitution
        • Addition
        • Assimilation
        • Reduplication
        • Deletion of syllables
        • Contanant cluster reductions
    • Halliday's functions
      • 1. Representational
        • How they feel, declarative
          • I've got to show you
      • 2. Regulatory
        • Requesting
          • Do as I tell you
      • 3. Instrumental
        • Needs/wants
          • I want
      • 4. Interactional
        • Personal contact, speaking to other
      • 5. Imaginative
        • Imaginary language
      • 6. Personal
        • Feelings/personal preferences
      • 7. Heuristic
        • Explorative, seek information
          • Tell me why
    • Piaget
      • Cognitive theory
        • Learn language because it's necessary
          • Understand meaning first else word won't be used
            • E.g. use past tense when you know about time
              • Look for abstract ideas in exam (love, time)
        • The idea of comprehension before speech is supported by the fis phenomenon
          • Berko and Brown
    • Network-building allows children to begin sorting words into categories
      • Hyponymy= hierarchial strucutre between lexical terms
        • Hypernym = A superordinate, more generic, can have specific terms under it
        • Hyponym = A more specific word under a hypernym
          • Parents often use these to encourage wider vocab
    • Parents also use CDS (child-directed speech)
      • Simple vocab, yes/no questions
      • Presnt tense, recasts (rephrase childs utterance)
      • Expansions (child's utterance into longer one)
    • Inflection
      • Brown
        • 1. -ing
        • 2. Plural 's'
        • 3. Possessive 's'
        • 4. The,a
        • 5. Past tense 'ed'
        • 6. 3rd person singular verb ending 'she sings'
        • 7. Auxillary verby 'be'
      • Cruttenden
        • 1. memorise on idvidual basis
        • 2. Awareness of general rules (past tense forms =ed 'I runned' (virtuous error)
        • 3. Correct inflections used
    • Bellugi
      • Negatives
        • 1. No and not used in front of other expressions 'no want'
        • 2. Moves no/not inside sentence 'I no want'
        • 3. Attatches to negative auxillary 'I don't want'
      • Pronouns
        • 1. Own name 'Tom play'
        • 2. I/me pronouns 'me play with toy'
        • 3. According to whether they are in subject or object position 'I play with toy' 'Give it to me'

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