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  • The development of phonology
    • Vegetative Stage (0-2 months)
      • Before babies understand meaning they begin to make sounds
      • Crying is seen as a response to an internal stimulus, proven to produce physiological changes in adults
    • 4-7 months
      • Features include cooing, first laughter and changes in pitch and loudness
    • 6-9 months
      • Beginning of phonemic expansion, as  voice box develops and muscular control increases, the baby's capacity to produce sounding becomes more wide-ranging and complex
      • Features include babbling, extension of sounds to imitate syllables and repeated patterns
      • The baby undergoes phonemic contraction, process by which they cease to be potentially international and their sounds are reduced to the sounds of their own language
      • Reduplicated monosyllables also become frequent, where babies produced combinations of sounds which may resemble adult speech, eg. 'baba'. Variegated babbling next stage from cooing
    • 9-12 months
      • After babbling, begin to produce sounds out of context: utterances known as proto-words (require pragmatic understanding)
      • Vowels easier to pronounce than consonants, master 2/3 of consonants by about 30-40 months
      • Consonant sounds such as the bilabial 'b' come first. Consonant clusters more challenging for 1-2 year old infants, may omit, transpose or reduce them. Capacity to form specific phonemes not yet in place.
    • Virtuous Errors
      • ADDITION: known as diminutives, reduplication and addition of sounds such as 'Moo moo'.
      • SUBSTITUTION: method of simplification, replacing harder sounds with easier ones eg. 'big' for 'pig' or 'fin' for 'thin' (Fis phenomenon). Assimilation different kind of substitution, child repeats a neighbouring sound rather than using easier one eg. 'doggie' becomes 'goggie'.
      • DELETION: 'Pi' for 'Pig' or 'ca' for 'cat'. Unstressed syllables may be removed eg. 'banana' becomes 'nana'. Consonant clusters may be reduced: 'nail' for 'snail'.


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