• Created by: orah2831
  • Created on: 15-05-19 15:42
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  • CLA
    • Theories
      • Skinner - children have an innate ability to learn language. tested on pigeons
      • Haliday
        • Instrumental: Language used to express needs
        • Regulatory: language used to persuade/ request others to do something
        • International: Language used to make contact with others and form relationships:
        • Personal: Language used to express feelings, opinions, and establish individual identity
        • Heuristic: Language used to gain knowledge about the environment, such as questions or commentaries on what the child or someone else is doing
        • Imaginative: Language used to create an imaginary environment
        • Representational: language used to convey facts and information
      • John Dore
        • labeling: assigning a name to a person, object or a thing
        • repeating: Repeating an adult's word
        • Answering: Responding to someone
        • Requesting action: Asking to do something/ for something to be done
        • Calling: to get attention
        • Greeting: saying hello
        • Protesting: objecting to requests of others
        • Practicing: By using language alone
      • Nelson: Suggested five categories for early words.
        • Object words 65%
        • Action words 13%
        • Modifiers 9%
        • Function words 4%
        • Personal/ social words 8%
      • Jean Berko: Children can acquire and use grammatical rules rather than just copying from adults. - Wug test
      • Burko and Brown: fis phenomenon - child mispronounced fish and even though they were corrected, they still emphasised fis
      • Chomsky: language acquisition was mainly to do with nature.
        • Genie counteracts this because she isn't grammatically competent due to spending 13 years in a room
    • Pre-verbal stage: Babies can understanding their mothers voice by the end of their first day (0 - 12 months)
      • Cooing: Early consonant sounds from the  back of throat, closely by short vowel-like sounds.
      • Babbling: The baby will begin to make combinations of consonant and vowel sounds. This is an important stage in the baby’s development of language
      • Proto-words: The child reduces the number of phonemes it produces as it begins to discard those it doesn’t need, but retains those necessary for later speech 
    • Holophrastic stage (12-18 months) One-word utterances. Single words are used by children in place of sentences.
    • Two word (18-24 months):Two-word utterances. The beginnings of sentence structures are being used.  
    • Telegraphic 24-36 months: Three and more word utterances. Sentences begin to have extra elements added 
    • Post Telegraphic stage 3-5yrs: Increasingly complex grammatical combinations,  more difficult aspects of grammar are being developed
    • Underextension:attribution of a narrower meaning to a word than is accurate
    • Oveextension: it is where a child attributes a broader meaning to a word than is accurate. 
    • CDS: refers to the modified version of English that adults use when they speak to younger children 
      • Grammatical:  ·         Names rather than pronouns. ·         Present tense mainly/fewer tenses generally. ·         One-word or short (elliptical) sentences. ·         More simple sentences/fewer complex. ·         Lots of repetition. ·         Lots of questions. ·         Lots of imperatives. ·         Lots of Yes/no questions. ·         More concrete nouns. ·         Fewer verbs and modifiers. Expansions 
      • Phonological:·         Slower pronunciation.·         Higher pitch, and wider pitch range (for questions/statements, etc.). ·         More (and longer) pauses, especially between phrases/sentences. Exaggerated (sing/song) intonation and stress. 
      • Lexical: Simpler vocabulary, using fewer words.·         Lots of vocatives. More concrete language  
      • Pragmatics Lots of exaggerated gestures and body language.·         Fewer utterances per turn in conversations so that the child has a chance to say as much as possible. Supportive language
      • How does it help: It helps  a child learn and remember the language
    • Reading
      • Early books are designed to help with speech acquisition
      • Pictures designed to enable children to assign labels to things
      • Books use tings like lexical and syntactical repetition. This helps syntax and lexis become more familiar
      • Ritualised routines  help children learn through repetition.


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