Circulatory System of an Animal

A mindmap in BIG detail to show you exactly everything you needed to know about the heart. Is AS level so has lots of detail.

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  • Circulatory System of an Animal
    • Arteries
      • Away from heart
      • Thicker than veins
      • Branch into arterioles
      • Carry oxygenated blood
      • Structure
        • Lumen
        • Endothelium
        • Elasticated fibres
        • Smooth muscle
        • Collagen
    • Veins
      • Thin walls
      • Pulmonary
      • Carry deoxygenated blood
      • Low pressure
      • Towards heart
      • Structure
        • Lumen
        • Elasticated fibres
        • Collagen
        • Smooth muscle
        • Endothelium
    • Heart
      • Ventricles (BIG)
        • Pump blood to the body or lungs
      • Atria (SMALL)
        • Pump blood to the ventricles
      • Septum
        • Splits the two ventricles
      • Semi-lunar valves
        • Stop blood flowing back to the ventricles when pumped
        • Ensure blood flows in right direction
        • Ventricles to arteries
      • Atrioventricular valves
        • Stop blood flowing back to the aorta when  pumped
        • a
        • Atria to ventricles
      • Aorta
        • Oxygenated blood pumped through here to the body
      • Coronary Arteries
        • Carry oxygenated blood to the heart ITSELF as the heart is a muscle and needs a supply of oxygen for energy
          • Blockage is the cause of angina or a heart-attack
      • Myogenic
        • Can beat inside and out of the body
    • System of blood flow
      • Right Atria
        • Right ventricle
          • a
          • Lungs
            • Through Pulmonary Artery
              • Deoxygenated
            • Left Atria
              • Through Pulmonary Vein
                • Oxygenated
              • Left Ventricle
                • Through Atrioventricular Valve
                • Body
                  • a
                  • Process starts again!
                    • a
                • Through  Aorta
              • a
            • a
          • a
        • Through Atrioventricular valve
    • Confusing
      • On a diagram the sides of the heart are the opposite way around
    • Capillaries
      • In between veins and arteries
      • Thin
      • Large surface area
      • Structure
        • Lumen
        • Endothelium
    • Cardiac Cycle
      • Ventricular systole
        • All four valves are closed
        • Ventricles contract pushing blood into arteries
        • Semilunar valves open
        • Short contraction
      • Atrial systole
        • Atria contract pushing blood into ventricles
        • Atrioventricular valves close
      • Diastole (Filling phase)
        • Both atria relaxed
        • Volume increases and blood flows into heart
        • Atrioventricular valves open
      • Control
        • SAN
          • Sinoatrial node
            • Generates electrical activity
        • AVN
          • Atrioventricular node
            • Non conducting tisuue
        • ECG
          • Electrocardiogram
            • Monitors electrical activity of heart
            • Used in hospitals
    • Type of system
      • Single circulatory systems
        • Blood pressure reduced a blood passes through the tiny capillaries of the gills
          • Fish used as example
            • Heart -> Gills -> Body -> Heart
        • This means it will mot flow very quickly to the rest of the body
        • Limits the rate at which oxygen and nutrients are delivered to respiring tissues
      • Double circulatory system
        • Heart can increase pressure of blood after it has passed the lungs
          • Human used as example
            • Heart  -> Body -> Heart -> Lungs -> Heart
        • Can carry blood at a higher pressure
        • Blood pressure is not high enough to damage the capillary network
        • Pulmonary
        • Systemic

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