Biology

  • Created by: AOconnor
  • Created on: 12-05-18 14:13
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  • Biology
    • Heart
      • Vena cava moves deoxygenated blood from body into right atrium
        • Pulmonary artery pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
          • Aorta moves oxygenated blood from lungs into left atrium
            • Pulmonary vein pumps oxygenated blood around body
      • Valves prevent backflow
      • RHR controlled by group of cells in right atrium that acts as pacemaker
        • Artificial pacemakers
          • Electrical devices used to correct irregularities in heart rate
      • Coronary heart disease
        • Layers of fatty material build up inside coronary arteries and narrow them
          • Heart valves can become fatty, and become faulty or develop a leak
            • Faulty valve can cause stroke, heart failure and blood clots
        • Stent keeps arteries open
        • Statin reduces blood cholesterol levels and slow down rate of fat build up
    • Cancer
      • Risk factors
        • Smoking
        • Obesity
        • Exposure to UV
        • Viruses
        • Genes
      • Caused by uncontrolled cell division
        • Forms masses of cells called tumours
          • Benign don't spread around body
          • Malignant spread via blood to different body parts to form secondary tumours
    • Gaseous Exchange
      • Blood pumped to lungs via pul. artery
        • Gases diffuse in/out of blood
          • Oxygenated blood sent to lungs via pul. vein
    • Repiration
      • Aerobic: Glucose + Oxygen = CO2 + Water (+energy)
        • Energy uses
          • Chemical reaction to build large molecules
          • Movement
          • Keeping warm
      • Anaerobic: Glucose = Lactic acid (+energy)
      • Fermentation
        • Plant and yeast anaerobic: Glucose = Ethanol + CO2 (+energy)
    • Blood
      • Plasma transports chemical substances
      • White blood cells protect against infection
      • Red blood cells
        • Contain haemoglobin, reacts with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin
        • no nucleus for more room for oxygen
        • Bi-concave shape to increase s.a
    • Blood vessels
      • Arteries pump blood from heart to organs
        • thick walls made from muscle and elastic fibres
      • Veins pump blood from organs to heart
        • thin walls and valves (prevent backflow)
      • Capillaries allow substances to pass in/out of blood
        • Narrow and thin wall (small diffusion path)

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