Circuits

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  • Created by: Clare
  • Created on: 26-03-13 16:16
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  • Circuits
    • Conductors
      • Metals are good conductors because they have free electrons
        • This means they are not bound to a particular atom and move at random throughout the metal
    • Currrent
      • Rate of flow of electric charge through a conductor
      • Measured in amps
      • Current is the same throughout the circuit
      • Measured using an ammeter with low resistance so it doesn't affect the circuit's current
        • Measures how many coulombs of charge pass through the lamp per second
    • Charge
      • Measured in Coulombs (C)
      • Charge= current x time
    • Voltage
      • Strength of current flow around a circuit
      • Tells us how much energy is transferred per coulomb of charge
      • Measured on a voltmeter in PARALLEL
        • Goes opposite component (light) in it's own section
      • Voltmeters have a very high resistance and measure how many joules of energy are converted
    • Circuit symbols
      • Switch
      • Fuse
      • LED
      • Lamp/ Bulb
      • Variable resistor
      • Diode
      • Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)
      • Cell
    • Series
      • The same current flows through all components
      • Circuit connected in series
      • E.g.: Fairy lights so replacing a bulb is safer as all lights have gone out
      • Any break stops everything, all components get an EQUAL share of battery voltage (same brightness) but are less bright overall
    • Parallel
      • At certain points the current is split and can take 2 or more routes, after the 2 currents join together
      • If components are identical the current will divide equally
      • E.g.: Main sockets and lights in a house- they all receive full voltage and don't stop working if one fuse blows
      • Advantages: Brighter, individual control, whole circuit doesn't break
      • Total current= sum of all currents on seprate

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