A. Resource 1

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  • Created by: anissa
  • Created on: 03-05-18 12:10
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  • 'Christian Country’
    • AGAINST
      • Secularisation in Britain
        • 19th Century was the ‘golden age’ of religiosity. Now there is a decline.
          • Fewer baptisms and church weddings
            • Greater religious diversity, including more non-Christian religions
        • Bryan WILSON, (1966)
          • long term process of secularisation- losing social significance
            • 40% of people attended church in mid 19th century • Fallen to 10-15% in the 1960s CHURCH ATTENDANCE TODAY(ISH) Only 6.3% of adult population attended church on Sundays in 2005. 2015- 5% Faith Survey
              • Religion Today Opinion polls and attitude surveys show that: More people claim they hold Christian beliefs than actually belong or go to church
                • EXPLANATION
                  • traditional society religious ideas, being replaced by modern scientific and rational thought = less importance
                    • Industrialisation has broken up small communities once held together by common religious beliefs
                  • Growth of diversity has undermined both the authority of religious institutions and the credibility of religious belief
                  • BRUCE argues that the growth of a technological worldview has largely replaced religious or supernatural explanations as to why things happen
                  • Structural differentiation - Parsons-Specialised institutions now carry out functions that were previously formed by a single institution
                  • BERGER: In the Middle Ages the Catholic Church held an absolute monopoly on faith, As a result, everyone lived under a single ‘sacred canopy’ or set beliefs shared by all. Now, Greater plausibility
                  • A Spiritual Revolution?   spiritual alternatives a modern adaption of religion to suit our needs and the times we live in?
                  • DAVIE, (1945) notes a trend towards VICARIOUS RELIGION, wherein a small number of the professional clergy practice religion on the behalf of a much larger number of people, who experience it second-hand
                    • Believing without belonging-  REGINALD BIBBY’S, (1993) Canadian survey, which found that only 25% attended church regularly, however 80% identified themselves as religious/with religious beliefs
                  • HERVIEU-LEGER, (2000):
                    • Cultural amnesia- Nowadays we have largely lost the religion that used to be handed down from generation to generation - children decide what they want to believe
                      • choice as consumers of religion = they have become spiritual shoppers. Choice to choose what we want
                  • Horton- science as an open system where claims are open to criticisms and testing. Religion-magic and other belief systems are closed- Un like scientific knowledge, it is fixed and does not grow
            • influence of religions as a social institution declined. State taken over e.g. Education
              • Still faith schools but they are state funded and must abide to the state's regulations
    • 'Doing God' in the political sphere (Cameron)
      • willingness to talk publicly about Christianity
        • BRUCE: Cameron demarcate himself from his New Labour + Previous BPM
          • PRIOR: metaphor of a poor radio signal—“it sort of comes and goes
        • Cameron referred to three broad elements- increasingly prominent in most of his ensuing speeches about Christianity: the personal, the political, and the national.
          • PERSONAL: “vaguely practising”  Christianity to “committed” albeit one -not change the world
          • POLITICAL: Disagreed politicians should not do God. Before adding- bible are all inherently involved in politics-many political questions are moral questions
          • National
            • King James Bible was so deeply embedded in all aspects of British culture and heritage- What is today.
              • “Christian country”, not afraid
              • Michael Gove
          • Christmas- Jesus' birth represents: peace, mercy, goodwill and, above all, hope
          • Britain could do more to stop the persecution of Christians. As a Christian country great role on global stage--> a more prominent Christian identity on the global stage
          • challenges facing the different churches were similar to those facing political institutions . Solution Evangelism
      • Graham, (2009) [20] and Maddox, (2004) benefits in invoking religion in political spaces but it can be divisive and promote exclusion
    • FOR
      • British monarch continues to be both head of the Church of England + Defender of the Faith’.
        • Bishops continue to sit as unelected representatives in the House of Lords
          • Davie
            • ‘backbone’ for the country in terms of its institutional and civic function
        • Country’s calendar and major public holidays, coincide with traditional Christian festivals
          • Working week+ Sunday trading laws, historically conceived as a day of rest
        • Education sector - First institutions to provide free school meals
        • COE and RC oversee the running of 1/3 of state funded schools
      • Churches continue to work towards alleviating poverty, providing healthcare and supporting those experiencing the poverty and deprivation
        • Since Middle of 20th century- transformed- from mono-faith country to one that is rather more multi-faith
          • growth in numbers of those identifying as non-Christian but so too the decline in numbers of those choosing to identify as being Christian.
            • Census data - none christian religions doubled.
              • Cameron did not deny this noted change in religious identification and the associated demographic.Acknowledged pluralism --> wider range of beliefs and commitments
                • Allowed this to flourish because tolerance that Christianity demands of our society. Fundamental Human Right.
              • In 2011 census, the percentage was 59.2% of the population [44]; in 2001, it was 71.6% [43]
  • FOR
    • British monarch continues to be both head of the Church of England + Defender of the Faith’.
      • Bishops continue to sit as unelected representatives in the House of Lords
        • Davie
          • ‘backbone’ for the country in terms of its institutional and civic function
      • Country’s calendar and major public holidays, coincide with traditional Christian festivals
        • Working week+ Sunday trading laws, historically conceived as a day of rest
      • Education sector - First institutions to provide free school meals
      • COE and RC oversee the running of 1/3 of state funded schools
    • Churches continue to work towards alleviating poverty, providing healthcare and supporting those experiencing the poverty and deprivation
      • Since Middle of 20th century- transformed- from mono-faith country to one that is rather more multi-faith
        • growth in numbers of those identifying as non-Christian but so too the decline in numbers of those choosing to identify as being Christian.
          • Census data - none christian religions doubled.
            • Cameron did not deny this noted change in religious identification and the associated demographic.Acknowledged pluralism --> wider range of beliefs and commitments
              • Allowed this to flourish because tolerance that Christianity demands of our society. Fundamental Human Right.
            • In 2011 census, the percentage was 59.2% of the population [44]; in 2001, it was 71.6% [43]

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