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  • Cholera
    • has...
      • capsule
      • cell surface membrane
      • flagellum
      • 70s ribosomes
      • cell wall
      • circular DNA
      • plasmids
    • Oral Rehydration Solutions
      • rehydration solution must contain:
        • Glucose - to stimulate uptake of sodium and energy
        • Sodium - to replace sodium ions lost
        • Potassium - replace lost potassium ions
        • Water  - to rehydrate
        • Electrolytes - prevent electrolyte imbalance
      • just drinking water is not effective because it does not replace ions
    • caused by a bacteria
    • Disease
      • the loss of  chloride ions increases the cells water potential
      • they produce a toxin protein which binds to the epithelial cells in the small intestine
      • the toxin enters the cell and opens the ion channels in the cell
      • main symptom is diarrhoea and consequently dehydration
      • chloride ions then flood into the lumen of the small intestine
      • the increase of chloride ions in the lumen lowers the water potential
      • water moves from the cells into the lumen
      • this establishes a concentration gradient so ions move into the epithelial cells from surrounding tissues
      • this causes a water potential gradient so water moves from the blood into the intestine
      • this loss of water causes severe diarrhoea and dehydration


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