Cholera and Prokaryotic cells

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  • Cholera and prokaryotic cells
    • Prokaryotic cells are only bacteria and blue/green algae
    • Prokaryotic cells have no distinct nucleus, a polypeptide and polysaccharide cell wall, a slime capsule outer, a large flagella for movement, a plasma membrane
    • Cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae
      • It breeds rapidly in water
      • Mainly in Africa, Asia and SOuth America
    • Prokaryotic cells enter the digestive system via contaminated water
    • Symptoms aren't always shown or if they are shown it is normally mild
      • Bacteria is still present in faeces between 7 and 14 days which can lead to easy transmission
    • Severe diarrhea is caused which leads to severe dehydration
    • Bacteria in the small intestine uses a flagella to move through the mucus into the gut wall and then creates toxins
      • This causes epithelial cells to pump chloride ions into the intestine lumen
        • This creates a more negative water potential causing water to move by osmosis into the gut lumen
          • Water and salts are lost through faeces
    • Oral rehydration- usually a drinkable solution or powder added to water that contains mineral ions, water, salt and glucose
      • The sodium ions and the glucose allow co-transport to occur
      • Sodium ions are taken into the gut wall creating a more negative water potential in the gut wall
        • This causes water to diffuse into the epithelial cells and then into the blood
    • Osmotic diarrhoea
      • this is when treatment makes the diarrhoea worse
        • Excess glucose caused osmotic diarrhoea so the glucose levels had to be reduced


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